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Transcript of WATER USAGE
The amount of water used in the world every day is very uneven. MEDCs use more water than LEDCs.. Water usage depends on the country, differs greatly from country to country, depending on how developed a nation is. Other influencing factors include agriculture and supply networks.
GLOBAL DEMAND FOR WATER
MEDCs and LEDCs
- LEDCs (like Bangaldesh and Malawi)
will have most of their water used in
agriculture (farming) and little in industry
or domestic use. Bangladesh has farming
as a large part of its economy so a large percentage of their water is used for that purpose.
- MEDCs (like the UK) have a more significant use of water for domestic reasons. MEDCs also tend to have a higher percentage for industrial use. There are exceptions. The USA is an MEDC, but it still has a high amount of water used for agriculture because there is also lot of farming across the country.
AGRICULTURE: by far the biggest user of freshwater.
- MEDCs irrigation is mechanized (timed irrigation feeds used). Where agriculture is common, vast amounts of water can be released at a touch of a button.
- LEDCs irrigation channels, loosing water through evaporation.
INDUSTRIAL: The biggest share of freshwater is stored in reservoirs and dams for electrical power generation and irrigation. However, the volume of water evaporated from reservoirs is estimated to exceed the combined freshwater needs of industry and domestic consumption. This greatly contributes to water losses around the world, especially in hot tropical regions
- Industries in MEDCs can be on a large scale, and so demand a lot of water.
- LEDCs have smaller scale cottage industries. They demand less water in the production of items. However as more multinational companies locate in LEDCs there will be more demand on water. For example in India Coca-Cola uses over a million litres of water a day to produce drinks.
DOMESTIC WATER: related to the quantity of water available to populations in cities and towns
- MEDCs there are a lot of facilities which demand water use. For example showers, baths, washing machines and swimming pools.
- LEDCs many people do not have access to piped water and so use it more sparingly. Water may be brought to the home from a well or stream.
- Lack of availability of clean water
- Diseases spread via the water supply
- Water pollution
- Quality of available water
- The seasonal changes in supply
- Broken pipes when transporting water
- Both water supply and the demand for water need to be managed.
Water resources are not growing, and we keep putting more stresses on them. We're polluting them. So the resources that we do have are running out. Water from aquifers, fossil water, as it's called...we're not making any more of that, and we're using it up. Fresh water in many places of the world, we're polluting it, is just going to become scarcer because of climate change.
A huge amount of water also goes into nuclear power. A lot of people are talking about nuclear as a response to climate change; because it doesn't produce greenhouse gas emissions...there are other issues with it, of course. And one of them is that it uses a lot of water.
Many countries are suffering from water use. There is 3% of fresh water in the world and it's running out.
COUNTRIES WITH LOW WATER USE
Mozambique, Rwanda, Haiti, Ethiopia,
and Uganda - these five use 15 liters
or less daily
The demand for resources: When people use something, it becomes a resource. Resources are also required to make all the things that we use in our daily lives.
A vast amount of water is used to produce the food and products that nations consume. Large population is the greatest factor, but inefficient agriculture or dependence on water can increase demand. Certain countries, such as India and the U.S., also export significant quantities of water in the form of food and products, despite their own robust consumption.
PROBLEMS IN SUPPLYING WATER IN MEDCS
PROBLEMS IN SUPPLYING WATER IN LEDCS
WATER USE IS BECOMING A HUGE ISSUE
Drought: economic or physical water scarcity (water stress) - drought can occur. Drought is below average supply of water over a prolonged period. Even relatively wet country's like the UK can suffer from drought.
Crops: shortage of water and farmers cannot irrigate their crops - begin to die.
Livestock: livestock don't have enough water to drink - begin to die.
Famine: crops failing and livestock dying - people starve and suffer from famine.
Groundwater Depletion: If aquifers begin to dry up or are used unsustainably, then the ground above can subside (collapse) or the aquifer can suffer from salinization or saltwater invasion.
Conflict: limited supply of water and water resources are shared conflict can arise.
Refugees: drought and famine - people are forced to relocate or face death.
Disease: Dirty water can attract mosquitoes, increase diseases like dengue and malaria. Also cause the spread of diseases like hepatitis A, typhoid, diarrhea…
Eutrophication: Run-off from farms containing fertiliser can lead to eutrophication. Eutrophication is the excess growth of algae causing water to not oxygenate properly or receive enough light. Cause plants and animals to suffocate and die.
PROBLEMS: Water Use + Shortages + Pollution
COUNTRIES WITH HIGH WATER USE
TOP 10 fresh water consumers (million cubic meters per year)
1. China (1,368,004)
2. India (1,144,605)
3. US (821, 354)
4. Brazil (335,374)
5. Russia (270, 490)
6. Indonesia (232, 239)
7. Pakistan (199,429)
8. Mexico (197,425)
9. Japan (174, 779)
10. Nigeria (157, 336)
- People in MEDCs need lots of resources to sustain their high levels of consumption.
- People in LEDCs sometimes have limited access to basic resources such as food and water.
There is an increasing demand for resources from a growing global population, especially those in MEDCs. The world's water resources are being used up more quickly. The consumption of water is spread unequally between MEDCs, who use more resources, and LEDCs, who use less.
As a country becomes wealthier, there will be an increase in its demand for water. Higher levels of industrialization and more domestic goods such as washing machines all lead to an increase in demand for water. With greater wealth there is also more demand for spas, baths and showers
As LEDC cities grow, so does the demand for water. However, water has got to come from somewhere, and the source of supply may be scarce. It is LEDCs which have the lowest access to safe water so that why the water use is lower than MEDCs which has better access.
FACTS AND FIGURES
3.5 planets Earth would be needed to sustain a global population achieving the current lifestyle of the average European or North American.
16,600 litres = 1kg of leather
15,500 litres = 1 kg of beef
5,000 litres = 1kg of cheese
3,900 litres = for 1 kg of chicken meat
3,400 litres = 1kg of rice
2,700 litres = 1 cotton shirt
2,400 litres//634 = 1 hamburger
1500 litres = 1kg of cane sugar
1300 litres = 1kg of wheat
1000 litres = 1 litre of milk
900 litres = 1kg of potato flakes
200 litres = 1 egg
40 litres = 1 slice of wheat bread
140 litres = 1 cup of coffee
30 litres = 1 cup of tea
120 litres = 1 glass of wine
70 litres = 1 apple
75 litres = 1 glass of beer
50 litres = 1 orange
10 litres = 1 A4 sheet of paper