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OCEANS
Water Quality
Water, Water, Everywhere!
Hydrology Unit
Water, Water, Everywhere!
Welcome Back! Feb. 19, 2013

Get Going: Reflect on the Exam you just took. What are some things you could have done to do better on the exam? What ways did you study or could have used to study better?
Turn this in the paper tray

Take a moment to fill out your agenda for this week
Agenda for Today
1. Review Microbiology Exam
- Write down the RIGHT answer.
2. Place Exam in your crate folder
3. Organize your papers
4. New folder, New stuff, New Unit
What is Hydrology?

What is our first standard?
UNDERSTAND the hydrosphere, and the IMPACT of humans on local systems and the EFFECTS of the hydrosphere on humans.

What is our Second Standard?
UNDERSTAND how organisms INTERACT with and RESPOND to biotic and
abiotic components of their environment.

What should go in our folder pockets?

How should one take good notes?

How does one study?

What's up with the VOCAB section?
Properties of Water
Surface Tension
Cohesion
Density
Buoyancy
tightness across the surface of water that is caused by the polar molecules pulling together side by side - Keeps bugs from sinking
+
+
-
Polar Molecule
Held together/attracted by an electric force
Draw this picture in your notes
Take notes on this video
polar molecules sticking together from all sides
How many pennies can I drop in my cup of water before it overflows?
Mass per unit of volume
1.0 g/cm3 or 1.0 g/mL
Ice = less dense than water because it occupies more space
We can compare densities to predict whether an object will sink or float in fluid.
Which one has a higher density?!
o
Ex: Iceberg in water floats
Hydrogen bonds - 39 F
0
The ability to float
The force that is exerted by a fluid on a submerged object
makes an object feel lighter
Draw your arrows little and big
Archimedes Principal states: buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of fluid the object displaces
Buoyancy Part II
Properties of Water Continued
Adhesion
Capillary Action
Universal Solvent
Specific Heat
water's ability to stick or be attracted to other surfaces
the positive end of the water is attracted to the negative end of other surfaces
You Try it..
Water climbs up things they are attracted to
Combined force of water molecules and molecules of surrounding material
Ex: wicking; water climbing up paper
1 cal/g C -- higher than any other substance including metals!
Water needs alot of heat to increase the temperature because its strong attraction to other molecules.
Rocks heat more quickly than water because it has a weaker attraction
0
Summer
Winter
Draw this picture
solution: water + koolaid mix
solvent: water (<-- does the dissolving)
many substances dissolves in water because water is polar
non-polar (no charge) substances does NOT dissolve well in water
get it?!
Ex: sugar (solid) bleach (liquid)
o
T.G.I.F. Feb. 22, 2013

Get Going: which would be MOST EFFECTIVE in defending against an epidemic?
a. medicating daily with antibiotics
b. quarantining uninfected individuals
c. immunizing individuals against the pathogen
d. reducing the number of vectors which transmit pathogens

Write down the question and the answer in your agenda. I will check them! Be ready to share your answer.
Ok.. We have just a few notes today
Draw and Label Properly - Find the definitions using your book.
Atmosphere
Biosphere
Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
Evaporation
Condensation
Precipitation
Surface Runoff
Ground Water
Find the definition of these words in your book
Agenda for today... Pay attention so you know what you are doing
1. Station # 1: Wax paper, popcicle sticks, eye dropper, water. Follow the directions given. You may challenge your partner in water hockey once questions have been answered.
2. Station # 2: Dunkin 4 Density - Film Canisters. Read through the directions carefully. You will have to do some math but remember M/V = D
3. Station # 3 Properties of Water Foldable
- Due at the end of class -
4. Earth's water ... copy into your notes. Only use ONE blue circle.
Review of water
1.
2.
3.
4.
Water is the only substance on Earth that occurs naturally as a solid, liquid, and a gas
It is rarely ever pure
Water covers 71% of Earth's surface
97% salt water (not drinkable)
3 % freshwater
77% of freshwater is ice (ice caps, glaciers, ocean)
Availability of water varies with local geography and allows humans to utilize water as a resource
The SUN drives the entire water cycle: condensation and evaporation
Aquifer - large deposit of ground water that can be extracted and used.
River Basins
portion of land drained by a river and its tributaries
streams, creeks flow downhill into one another and eventually into one river
sends all water into a central river and out to sea
ALL people live on a land that drains to a river, estuary, or lake
affects water quality and quantity downstream
17 River Basins in NC
The topography of the land depends if it flows to the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic Ocean
5.
Color this on the map given to you and turn in with your name on it.
52, 337 square miles of surface and underground waters
We live in the White Oak River Basin -1,264 square miles
within 4 counties
Good Morning/Afternoon Feb. 25, 2013

Get Going: Which best explains why influenza H1N1 was declared a pandemic in 2009?
a. more cases than expected were reported
b. it was contained to one geographic region
c. it was highly contagious form of the virus
d. More than 206 countries reported cases
of H1N1

Write the question and answer down in your notes. We will discuss in a few minutes.
Time is ticking for you to finish your lab from Friday.

1. Definitions
2. Water distribution pie graph
3. Dunkin 4 Density (Station #2)
4. Foldable on Properties of Water (TURN IN)
5. Lab Paper turned in!

Make sure your list is checked off!
Work Diligently
6.
7.
Seasonal Changes

Long Term Changes
PONDS
water collects in hollows
shallow water - sunlight touches the bottom
plants and algae grow here
LAKES
water collects in the hollows
shallow parts like a pond but also the deep parts where sunlight doesn't touch the bottom (less plant life here)
Reservoir: lake stores water for human use
If there is TOO much algae; it will block the sunlight and the lake will lose oxygen and die.
RIVERS
Tributaries - creeks that bring their water to the rivers
Watershed - land area that supplies water to river system
Divides - ridge of land that separates watersheds
EUTROPHICATION:
1. nutrients build up in the lake
2. built up over time 3. causes more algae
Good Morning/Afternoon Feb. 26, 2013

Get Going: Which is the BEST outcome of using biotechnology in agriculture in North Carolina?
a. It is better for the environment
b. More jobs will be created in the state
c. More desirable crops can be produced
d. More technologically advanced farm equipment will be used.

Fill out your agenda when finished writing the Q & A.
Foldable is due today!!!!
Log in to USAtestprep.com

southwestmiddlenc

Complete the newest assignments for a grade!
*Hydrology Practice
* Water Distribution/River Basin
* Chemistry Review

An average grade will be taken for the two hydrology assignments --TRY YOUR BEST!
Good Morning/Afternoon Feb. 27, 2013

Get Going:
How can a couple BEST determine if either parent is a carrier of a genetic disease before they have a child?
a. urinalysis
b. blood test
c. DNA analysis
d. physical examination
Which BEST explains how hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) combine to form many different compounds, such as water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)?
a. the elements combine in the same ratio
b. the elements bond together in different ways
c. the elements initially have different numbers of electrons
d. the elements are physically altered to create new and different compounds
Reminders: No Foldable = working lunch on Thursday! .. Get it done!!!
1
2
3 Person Groups
Timer
Captain
Runner
You must keep your group on track and on time to complete the assignment.
This is a HUGE responsibility
You must keep your group in line and on task. You will delegate the work to be shared by all in your group. You are responsible for your groupmates and the job that they are doing.
You are responsible to get supplies needed for your group. In this case, you will be taking the completed notes and comparing them with the teachers. If some things are there that your group did not have you must write them down and bring it back to your group.
Wetlands
Your goal is to make you have detailed notes.
On pg. 74-79 is the section that your group must cover.
There are 3 distinct sections in the chapter and the CAPTAIN should delegate each section to each member.
The timer keeps the ball rolling by paying attention to the time so that all tasks will be completed before the time runs out.
Goal: At the end each of you will have your own set of notes on the Wetlands section. ** I will check to see if you have it completed***
The runner must make sure the notes are complete by comparing with the teacher copy.
When finished -- your group can work on answering the questions on pg. 79 #1-3 together on one piece of paper to be turned in.
25 min
YOU NEED YOUR SCIENCE BOOK TODAY
The amount of runoff depends on 5 things
1. Amount of rain an area receives
2. vegetation
3. Type of soil (absorb?)
4. Shape of the land (slope?)
5. How people use the land (pavement)
More runoff = More erosion
RIVER
Meander
[Karst Topography]
Delta
Estuaries
1. Mangroves
2. Salt Marshes
OCEAN
Hydrothermal Vents
Good Morning/Afternoon Feb. 28, 2013

Get Going
1
2
Which BEST explains how nitrogen (N) and hydrogen (H) combine to form ammonia (NH3)?
a. When nitrogen and hydrogen physically bond in any arrangement, ammonia is formed
b. When nitrogen and hydrogen chemically bond in any arrangement ammonia is formed
c. When nitrogen and hydrogen physically bond in a specific ratio ammonia is formed
d. When nitrogen and hydrogen chemically bond in a specific ratio ammonia is formed
Which characteristic BEST describes bacteria?
a. cause influenza, reproduce easily, nonliving
b. unicellular, microscopic, treated with antibiotics
c. multicellular, larger than animal cells, doesn't reproduce
d. requires a host cell to multiply, found in soil, treated with vaccines
Get into your groups of 3 you had yesterday
Captain
Runner
Timer
Finish your questions on pg. 79 and submit.
10 min
Remember your roles!!
PARTNER UP!
How do you quiz each other?
Ask questions on main topic
Answer all that you can remember
Search for the rest

Write questions on a sheet of paper with your names on it to be TURNED IN!!
Good Morning/ Afternoon MARCH 1, 2013

Get Going:
Which reproductive body of fungi is released, aiding in the spread of fungal infections?
a. eggs
b. pollen
c. sperm
d. spores
Estuaries
Continued
1. less than 30ft deep
2. Great diversity in species (fish, shrimp, oysters)
3. Good nurseries (protection, nutrients) - sea turtles
4.Largest in NC = Pamilico Sound
5. Protect against erosion and reduces flooding
* sandbars - buffer impact of waves
* plants, shellfish beds anchor against tides
* swamps/marshes - block wind, soak up rain, &
extra water into the rivers
6. Filter Pollutants and trap chemicals
1 oyster filters 25 gallons of water per day
Facts
Salinity
Gases
Pressure
Ocean Zones
Current & Climate
Habitat
Resources
Pacific - Largest ocean
Atlantic - 2nd largest
Indian - named after a country
Southern - 2nd smallest (antarctic)
Arctic- smallest (arctic region)
All oceans are interconnected ---
1 BIG OCEAN
Largest heat reservoir (specific heat)
Big part of the water cycle
Food and Mineral use for humans
Amount of salt dissolved in a body of water
35 grams of salt/ 1kg of water
Ocean water doesn't freeze until -1.9 C
Higher density = higher buoyancy force
More Salt Less Salt
Evaporation

Add fresh H20

River Mouths

Red sea

Poles of Earth
Than the ocean
NaCl
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Oxygen (O2)
Nitrogen
60 x > than the atmosphere
Algae - CO2-photosynthesis
Animals - coral - biocarbonate
-calcium carbonate shell
(hard shell)
scarcer than the atmosphere
from air and algae (photosynthesis)
more O2 at the surface
cold waters = more oxygen
low salinity = more gas
pressure = depth
deep water = pressure, holds more gas than shallow water
Draw the picture p.158 and submit for a grade
Welcome Back! Mar. 4, 2013

Get Going: A student finds that an unknown element reacts with elements from Group 2. To which group does the unknown element MOST LIKELY belong?

a. Group 1
b. Group 3
c. Group 16
d. Group 18
Surface Currents
Deep Currents
Upwelling:
-driven by the winds
Coriolis Effect: Earth's rotation dictates direction of current
* Gulf Stream - largest/powerful

El Nino: abnormal climate change
1x every 2-7 years in Pacific Ocean
* mudslides, no winter, lots of rain
- different densities, move and mix water around the world
-carry cold water from poles to the equator
-movement of deep cold water to the surface; wind blows warm surface water and is replaced by cold water.
-stirs up nutrients from deep to surface
-El Nino prevents this from happening = bad fishing
- pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a period of time

-surface current warms/cools air about it influencing the climate near the coast
Good Morning/ Afternoon March 5, 2013

Get Going: Earth's oceans contain many dissolved elements like calcium, sodium and chlorine. These elements plus several others combine to form the salts in the oceans.

What is a major source of calcium and sodium in oceans?
a. air pollutants
b. gases from active volcanoes
c. minerals dissolved in aquifers
d. weathering and erosion of rocks

Reminders: All MISSING work needs to be completed before Wednesday!!!!!!!!
USA TEST PREP.com

southwestmiddlenc
Grade will be on 3/5 assignments! Complete the list as follows.

1. Hydrology - Properties of Water
2. Hydrology - River Basins
3. Hydrology - Oceans
4. Hydrology - Oceans -game
5.. Chemistry - Practice # 2
Show me your scores upon completion
Finished Early?! Make up work!!
1. Intertidal Zone - highest tide to the point on the continental shelf exposed to the lowest tide
2. Neritic Zone - low tide line to to the edge of the continental shelf
3. Open-Ocean Zone - beyond the edge of the continental shelf
Plankton: tiny algae and animals that float
Nekton: free swimming animals (whales, fish)
Benthos: organisms that inhabit the ocean floor (octopus, crab)
Intertidal Zone: Organisms that live here must be tough; pounding waves, salinity, and temperature, long time with and without water
Get into your group of 3
Take notes on the Neritic Zone on pages 196-203

Compare your notes to the teacher's when completed answer the Q's on pg. 203 # 1-3 as a group.

Remember your roles!! Work diligently ..
Captain
Timer
Runner
25 MIN!!
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 6, 2013
Get Going:

Why is freshwater in short supply on Earth?
a. Most of it is frozen
b. Most of it is polluted
c. Most of it is in the atmosphere
d. Most of it is trapped underground

Reminders: Any Missing Work DUE today!!!!!!
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 7, 2013

Get Going: Are you ready for your QUIZ?!! Pull out your notebook and make sure you have your notes. HINT HINT right now would be a great time to get the notes you missed and complete any missing assignments!

Reminders: IM Reports are due tomorrow - signed OR I will be calling home on Monday.
ACTIVOTES
STUDY TIME
Venn Diagram on Ocean Resources
Protecting Earth's Oceans
Find a Partner
Read page 212-213 together and answer question # 1 and # 2.

Be prepared to discuss your answer to the class.
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 8, 2013

Get Going: Turn in your IM Reports in the box!

Start studying!!!!!! You have a quiz today.
Make sure you have all of your Notes!!!


Reminders: Bring in your IM Report if you have forgotten to bring it.
HEALTH
OF THE
WATER SYSTEM
CHEMICAL
VARIABLES
BIOLOGICAL
VARIABLES
PHYSICAL
VARIABLES
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 11, 2013

Get Going: Which BEST describes the types of organisms found in estuaries?

a. They can survive in salt water
b. They can only be found in freshwater
c. They cannot tolerate brackish water
d. they tolerate both freshwater and salt water

REMINDERS: IM Reports need to be turned in!
QUICK REVIEW
Make sure you have the correct answers on your quizzes

HIGHLIGHT or * the ones that give you the most trouble

File these quizzes in your SCIENCE FOLDER.
Temperature
Turbidity
Water
Movement
Dissolved Oxygen
Other gases
pH
Nitrates and Phosphates
Salinity
Natural
Man Made Forces
Humans are concerned with fresh water.
*Potable water is water that is safe to drink.
*Safe water is for bathing and cleaning.

We look out for nutrients & pesticides in the water.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): sets
max levels for 90 most commonly occurring contaminants
SUBMIT YOUR FOLDABLE
COMPLETE A FOLDABLE WITH CRITERIA BELOW
* Temperature *Dissolved Oxygen *pH
* Turbidity * Other gases *Salinity *Nitrates & Phosphates
* Water Movement * Natural vs Man-made
* Photic vs Aphotic * Biotic vs Abiotic
Use the Worksheets - DO NOT TAKE HOME - this is an IN CLASS GRADE
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 12, 2013

Get Going: Which best explains poor productivity of the open ocean?

a. Photosynthesis is reduced because sunlight does not penetrate very deeply
b. Most of the phytoplankton is found at depths where there is no sunlight
c. Photosynthesis cannot occur in the phytoplankton because the temperature is too high
d. Large fish consume most of the phytoplankton, which reduces photosynthetic reactions.

REMINDER: IM Reports DUE & Foldable due!!
USA TEST PREP.com

southwestmiddlenc
Complete 4/6 assignments for a grade.

Stay on Task!

Remember there is only ONE time to do well on the EOG!! We can do it!
Assignments are:

1. Chemistry
2. Oceans
3. Rivers
4. Water Quality -
5. Water Quality -Game
6. Water Quality 2 - Game
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 14, 2013

Get Going:
Which human action would MOST LIKELY increase the nutrients in an ecosystem?

a. building a rock wall
b. fertilizing a cornfield
c. watering a flower bed
d. pulling weeds from a garden

REMINDERS: IM REPORTS ( I haven't forgotten)
FOLDABLES DUE!
HOW DO PEOPLE USE WATER?
WHAT IS A WATER SHORTAGE?
WHAT DO YOU USE WATER FOR?
WHAT ARE SOME WAYS WE CAN GET FRESHWATER?
HOW CAN WE CONSERVE WATER?
We need a Captain, Timer, and a Runner!!

***Stay on Task***

I will check your paper as we go to make sure you have the RIGHT answers for your notebook!
Good Morning/Afternoon March 14, 2013

Get Going: Which MOST LIKELY has the highest number of contaminants in the water?

a. a water system with moderate turbidity
b. a water system with high turbidity
c. a water system with low turbidity
d. a water system with no turbidity


REMINDERS: IM REPORTS/FOLDABLE DUE!!!!!!!!
Quiz moved to MONDAY!
FINAL for Hydrology is March 27 & 28
Gallery Walk
It's time to put your thoughts to paper and share
Get into groups according to your color on the table
Ecosystems -----> Food webs
The study of how organisms INTERACT with each other and their environment
ALL energy comes from the sun
Population: a group of the same species
It is described by 3 things:
1. size 2. density 3. distribution
Density-dependent factors
: crowding causes competition for food, water, shelter, predation, parasitism, & disease.
Density-independent factors:
doesn't matter about size; weather, pollution, wildfires, etc
Other things that can change populations
Abiotic: nonliving (water, sunlight, nutrients)
Biotic: living (bacteria, fungi, plants, animals)
Coral Reef
N.C.
Saharan Ecosystem
Predators vs Prey
Prey , Predator

Predator , Prey
Relationship Troubles
Competition:
relationship that occurs when 2 or more organisms need the same resource at the same time
Symbiotic Relationship
2 different organisms that live in direct contact with each other
1. Parasitism 2. Mutualism
Parasite benefits and host does not.
-either lives inside or outside of host
ex) tapeworm
both organisms help each other survive
Producers
http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/content/animals/kidscorner/games/foodchaingame.htm
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 15, 2013

Get Going:
25 min
* Make their own food
* Bottom of the chain
* Autotrophs
Herbivores
* animals that only eat plants
Ominvores
* eat both plants and animals
Justin Beiber shout out
Carnivores
* eat only meat
FOOD CHAIN
simplest feeding order in an ecosystem
3 Trophic Levels
Increase by 10% in energy
100
10
1
Arrow always points to the consumer
Which is the MOST LIKELY result of an increase in the level of nitrates in a body of water?

a. increase in turbidity
b. increase in plant growth
c. increase in fish population
d. increase in water temperature

REMINDERS: Quiz moved to Monday
FINAL exam is March 27 & 28
Which is the GREATEST impact of large quantities of sediment flowing into N.C.'s rivers and streams?

a. sediments poisons fish
b. sediment prevents light from reaching plants
c. sediment interferes with the ability for fish to find mates
d. sediment increases the depth of rivers and streams, reducing the amount of flowing water
Good Morning/Afternoon Mar. 19. 2013

Get Going: Which best describes how coral reefs, forests, and ponds sustain animal populations?
a. They provide resources animals need to survive
b. They are found in areas where humans have little impact
c.They provide a source of water from which animals can drink
d. They are found in areas where temperatures are too high for plants to grow

Reminders: Turn in your FRESHWATER RESOURCE PAPER/FOLDABLE for grades!
FINAL IS MARCH 27 & 28 --> START STUDYING
OH Happy Day! Mar. 20, 2013

Get Going: How are the remains of the living organisms cycled through ecosystems?

a. evaporation
b. condensation
c. decomposition
d. photosynthesis

Reminder: FINAL Mar 27 & 28 --> Start Studying!!
Agenda
Foldables

Food Web Map -- must complete
Happy Thursday! Mar 21, 2013

Get Going: Whch shows the correct flow of energy through this simple food chain?

a. fox ---> grass ---> rabbit
b. grass ---> fox ---> rabbit
c. grass ---> rabbit ---> fox
d. rabbit ---> grass ---> fox

Reminders: FINAL Mar 27 & 28
TURN IN ANY MISSING WORK!!!!
Agenda
REVIEW Quiz # 2 and # 3

Test your Partner
Good Morning/ Afternoon Mar. 22, 2013

Get going:
Draw your own food web using the animals below
* grass * lion
* mouse * giraffe
* zebra * owl

Reminders: Final Exam Mar 27 & 28
TURN IN ANY MISSING WORK --> you know who you are...
Welcome to Africa Food Web Game
Rules
GOALWelcome to Africa Game
1. No Horseplay
2. Whistle means "freeze"
3. Ask 3 Before Me
1. Find your Partner
2. Find your place on the food web
3. Complete the Q's

CLUES
1. Think are you WATER or LAND ----> & go there
2. Pick a leader to help organize
3. MOUSE ---> OWL
NOT
Owl ---> Mouse
Welcome to Africa - Food Web Game
What you need....
1. pencil/pen
2. MAP!!!
Good Morning/ Afternoon Mar. 26, 2013

Get Going: Quietly study for the first 10 minutes of class.



REMINDERS: FINAL IS WED!!!
GALLERY WALK
* Indicate on chart paper what you know without repeating what someone else has written

* Each station will have a set number of people and you will rotate with them.

* 2 min per rotation
1. Pull out all your quizzes

2. You will quiz your partner for 10 min
* Stay on task
* Ask questions from your quizzes

**** Food Web & Chain are fair game ***

3. AGAIN --stay on task or we will silent read
ONE NOTE CARD FILL OUT FOR QUIZ

* front and back is fair game
* turn in before the end of class
* must be signed off by me before using
* may NOT use someone else's card.
Good Morning/ Afternoon Mar. 27, 2013

Get Going: STUDY STUDY STUDY for your quiz

When done you will be asked to turn in your Science folders for a grade.

REMINDERS: TODAY is the LAST day for missing work!!!!
Distribution of freshwater on earth...
0.3%
70%
30%
What is water mainly used for?
70% - __________________
22% - __________________
8% - ___________________

(easily available)
Draw this in your notes
Distribution of water on earth
freshwater
3%

saltwater
97%

draw this in your notes
What is saltwater?


What is freshwater?

- water containing large amounts of salt
-water lacking large amounts of salt
POLARITY:
BENT MOLECULE
Water has no taste, color, or smell
Water, in nature, appears as a solid, liquid, and a gas at normal temps on Earth
Gas: water vapor

Liquid: rivers, etc

Solid: ice- it freezes and expands : less dense than other liquids

Imagine if Ice froze from the bottom to top instead....
Polarity allows it to have dissolving ability
ex) how trees bring water from its roots to the tallest leaves
Full transcript