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Rainforest Flora

Rainforest Flora Amanita muscaria

Sam Y

on 6 June 2012

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Transcript of Rainforest Flora

Rainforest Plant
*** Amanita muscaria***
(Fly Agaric)

By Samantha Yuen What is Amanita muscaria?
Commonly known as the Fly Agaric (Red Mushroom).
It is a poisonous and psychoactive fungus Where can Amanita muscaria be found?

It is native throughout the temperate rainforest and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including warmer latitudes in regions like the Hinda Kush, the Mediterranean and Central America.

It has been unintentionally introduced to many countries in the Southern hemisphere. Classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Subkingdom: Dikarya
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
Class: Agaricomycetes
Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Species: A. muscaria

Binomial name: Amanita muscaria How does it look like?

It is a large, conspicuous mushroom with
white gill, white spots and usually deep red in colour.

(There are several subspecies, with different cap colour
including brown, yellow-orange and pinkish) Where do they live?

They love damp and shady habitats, such as the floor
of rainforest, where it is covered with massive amounts
of dead plants and animal materials. How do Red mushroom feed?
(Feeding mechanism)

They absorb food from their surroundings, eg. soil, wood
or other types of living or dead plant or animal materials

Stringy strands called hyphae, absorb nutrients and water
from their surroundings, giving energy to the fungi for further
growth and reproduction.

These thread-like "hyphae" grow into a thick mat known as
mycelium. This mycelium absorbs nutrients and water and passes
what it doesn't need through into the roots of the tree, where
the fungus grow onto.

This relationship between the mushroom and the plant/tree are
known as mycorrhiza. How do red mushroom reproduce their youngs?
(Life Cycle)

They reproduce by producing spores. Spores are tiny cells inside a protective coating , which grow into new fungi.

Spores are actively dispersed by forcible ejection from their reproduction structures.

The mushroom are the reproductive part of the fungus (fruity body) underneath the cap of a mushroom, are lots of slits, known as gills. Spores grow on the surface of these gills. The "fruiting bodies" only last a few days.

Since only a few spores manages to land in a suitable place and survive to a new individual, the adult fungus therefore produces millions of spores, to increase of chance of reproduction. Stages of growth (Life Cycle) III

Fully grown, the bright red cap is usually around 8-20cm in diameter.

The red colour may fade after rain and in older mushrooms.

The free gills are white as is the spore print.

At the base is a bulb that bears universal veil remnants in the form of two to four distinct rings or ruffs. What do they do to the rainforest?
(Impact on Rainforests)

As decomposer, the mushroom process dead plant and animal matter through decay.

The Degraded organic matter turns into inorganic molecules, which can then re-enter in the plants or other organisms.

Red mushroom has a mycorrhizal symbiosis relationship (living together and rely on each other for different needs) with the surrounding plants.

This increases the surrounding plants' uptake of inorganic compounds, such as nitrate and phosphate from soils, which have low concentration of these key plant nutrients.

The plants obtains all of its nutrients from its fungal symbiont. The fungal species inhabit the tissues inside roots, stems, and leaves, so increase resistance to herbivores and other environmental stresses and receive food and shelter from the plant in return.

The presence of the mushroom in the rainforest facilitate the thrive of plants, especially in the understory level. Did you know? (Interesting facts)

Amanita muscaria is considered poisonous, however, deaths are extremely rare, it has been consumed as a food in parts of Europe, and North America after parboiling in plentiful water. (Yum1?)

A fatal dose has been calculated at approximately 15 caps.

Amanita muscaria is also called Fly agaric. It is called the mushroom of flies because it was used as an insecticide to kill flies when crushed in milk in old England and Sweden. (Really?!)

Red mushroom is widely known as Toadstools, but there is no particular difference between mushroom and toadstools. They are both the fruiting bodies of the fungus, which produce spores for reproduction.

Fly agaric was recorded in history to be used by different people in Europe, and for religious or shamanic purposes, eg. in Siberia. How does it look like?

It is numerous where it grows, and is often found in groups in all stages of development. Stages of growth (Life Cycle) 1

Fly agaric fruiting bodies (mushroom) emerge from the soil looking like a white egg, covered with yellow pyramid-shaped warts. Stages of growth (Life Cycle) II

As the fungus grows, the red colour appears through the broken veil and the warts become less prominent.

The cap changes from globe-liked to hemispherical, and finally to plate-like and flat in mature speciments. ***The End***
Thank you for watching!
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