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Teen Pregnancy

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Anna McLean

on 21 June 2013

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Transcript of Teen Pregnancy

Teen Pregnancy
Perceptions
Prevalence
• In 2011, a total of 329,797 babies were born to women aged 15–19 years.

(http://www.cdc.gov/TeenPregnancy/AboutTeenPreg.htm)

The Decline
•Teen birth rates fell at least 15% for all but two states during 2007–2011—the most recent period of sustained decline; rates fell 30% or more in seven states.
Declines in rates were steepest for Hispanic teenagers, averaging 34% for the United States, followed by declines of 24% for non- Hispanic black teenagers and 20% for non-Hispanic white teenagers.


Let's take a deeper look...
Do you agree with Dr. Drew?
Amber reported making $280,000 per year
-Jenelle Evans- MTV Teen mom has been arrested 9 times, her latest was a heroin arrest
-Adoption aspect shown on Teen Mom
Class Discussion:

Do you think the social media; Teen Mom 2 and MTV shows specifically glamorize teen pregnancy OR advocate for prevention against teen pregnancy by showing the difficulties these teens face?
A Glimpse of MTV Show
Teen Mom 2
Medical Concerns
Test what you know with this T/F test
Highlights from an opinion based article by Melissa Henson, the director of communications and public education for the Parents Television Council, a nonpartisan organization advocating responsible entertainment. She is a noted expert on entertainment industry trends and the impact of entertainment media on children and popular culture.
Show airing on MTV, with the history of all their other shows(Real World/Road Rules, Hard times of RJ Berger) instead of another channel such as Discovery Health that may choose to take a different approach on this serious issue
In terms of MTV-- An example of a promo for another show called "The Hard Times of RJ Berger" says: "Losing one's V-card can add a swagger to even the dorkiest of dork's steps."
The way they promote the show through emails: "Amber Portwood Gets Baby Leah Belly Tattoo" or "Jenelle Runs Up Her Mother's Credit Card Bill." Not, "Amber Portwood has only had six hours of sleep in two days because her baby won't stop crying!"
What they decide to highlight in the show is not the difficulties of pregnancy but the volatile relationships with the girls and their babies' fathers, or their newest tattoos
Promotion of a behavior that can lead to a cycle of potential poverty or pregnancy
Teens seeing this as their “ticket to fame”

Highlights from an article by Lauren Dolgen, the senior vice president of MTV series development on the West Coast. Dolgen created and developed MTV's "16 And Pregnant," "Teen Mom" and "Teen Mom 2."


”We believe that our audience is smart enough to view "Teen Mom" and "16 and Pregnant" as the shows were intended -- as cautionary tales about the consequences of unprotected sex, and the reality of becoming a parent too early” -Creator of Teen Mom
Research by the National Campaign found that among teens who watch "16 and Pregnant," 82% believe the show helps teens better understand the challenges of teen pregnancy, parenthood, & how to avoid it.
According to a study by the Internet Sexuality Information Services Inc., many respondents cited the impact that TV had on educating them about sex and reproductive health. In particular, they cited two shows, "16 and Pregnant" and "Teen Mom," as positive influences.
Still a lot of work to be done, however, recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention finds the teen birth rate in the U.S. at a record low.

Write a letter or a poem responding to these images. This can be directed at yourself, at your peers, or both

Create a self-portrait. You may use any art medium you desire, and be as creative as you want to be. Create a piece of art that represents you in this moment.

Create an image of yourself as your peers see you. You may use any art medium you desire, and be as creative as you want to be. Create a piece of art that represents you in the eyes of your peers in this moment.

ACTIVITY
This may be a stretch…..
Pretend you are a 16-old-pregnant female
You are a Junior in high school
You are involved in typical school activities with your peers and have a typical adolescent relationship with your parents

Counseling Strategies
Depression
Use expressive arts or sand tray to help the teen discover and release emotions
Practice unconditional positive regard and empathy with the teen

Counseling Strategies
Counseling Strategies
Stress and Anxiety
Help the teen plan
Role play
Provide list of community resources
Offer opportunities for weekly reflections
Assist the teen in becoming self-aware
Personal challenges
Personal goals
Strategies to accommodate both

Common Themes
Stress and Anxiety
Communication (parents, friends, father, etc.)
Fear and worry about the future
Decision making
Low self-esteem/Sense of failure
Depression

The School Counselor
Connect the student with the school nurse
Serve as a liaison with the student and the teachers, if needed
Provide the student with community resources available to them
Assist the student in goal-setting and planning for future academic needs
ADVOCATE for services (homebound services; distance education, etc.)

The School Scene
Nearly 1/3 of teen girls who have dropped out of school cite teen pregnancy as the key reason, making it the number one reason
40% of teen moms complete high school
> 2% of women who have a baby before the age of 18 complete college by the age of 30
Use expressive arts or sand tray to help the teen discover and release emotions
Practice unconditional positive regard and empathy with the teen

Low Self-Esteem/Sense of failure
Offer group counseling opportunities
Importance of Prevention
In 2008, teen pregnancy and childbirth accounted for nearly $11 billion per year in costs to U.S. taxpayers for increased health care and foster care, increased incarceration rates among children of teen parents, and lost tax revenue because of lower educational attainment and income among teen mothers. (“Counting it up: The public costs of teen childbearing,” 2011)
• Pregnancy and birth are significant contributors to high school dropout rates among girls. Only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, versus approximately 90% of women who had not given birth during adolescence. (Perper, Peterson, & Manlove , 2010)
• The children of teenage mothers are more likely to have lower school achievement and drop out of high school, have more health problems, be incarcerated at some time during adolescence, give birth as a teenager, and face unemployment as a young adult. (Hoffman, 2008)
http://www.mtv.com/videos/16-and-pregnant-ep1-maci/1612283/playlist.jhtml#series=2211&seriesId=629&channelId=1
Prevalence
The long-term difference between birth rates for non- Hispanic black and Hispanic teenagers has essentially disappeared, and by 2011 their rates were similar.

Rates for Hispanic teenagers fell 40% or more in 22 states and the District of Columbia (DC);
(Hamilton, Matthews, & Ventura, 2013)
The Decline
What surprises you the most about these facts?
How does this impact us as counselors of pregnant pre-adolescents or adolescents?
References
Hamilton, B. E., Matthews, T. J., & Ventura, S. J. (2013, May). Declines in state teen birth rates by
race and hispanic origin. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ databriefs/db123.pdf

About teen pregnancy. (2012, November 21). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ TeenPregnancy/
AboutTeenPreg.htm

National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, (2011). Counting it up: The public
costs of teen childbearing. Retrieved from website: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org /costs/default.aspx

Perper, K., Peterson, K., & Manlove, J. Child Trends, (2010). Diploma attainment among teen mothers
(2010-01). Washington, D.C: Fact Sheet Publication.

Hoffman SD. Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy.
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press; 2008.

Klein, J.D. (2005). Adolescent pregnancy: Current trends and issues. Pediatrics 116(1) 281-286. doi:
10.1542/peds.2005-0999

Shuger, L. (2012). Teen pregnancy and high school dropout: What communities can do to address
these issues. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned pregnancy and America's Promise Alliance.

http://www.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/05/04/henson.teen.mom.show/index.html

http://www.cnn.com/2011/SHOWBIZ/TV/05/04/teen.mom.dolgen/index.html#0_undefined,0_



Religion
Christianity
Southern Baptist
• Responsibility of the girl to confess sins in front of the church.
• Consequences for not confessing sins can lead to excommunication from the church.

Catholicism
• A view of contraception
o Generally believe in natural family planning (without contraceptive aid or protection)


Ethnicity
DISCUSSION

What do you think are some cultural aspects of teen pregnancy that counselors should consider when working with adolescent clients of a minority?

Boys vs. Girls
In the Beginning...
• 45% of high school females and 48% of high school males have had sexual intercourse (2005 data)
• Average age of first intercourse is 17 years for girls and 16 years for boys
• Approximately 1/4 of all youth report having had intercourse by 15 years of age

• Younger teenagers are especially vulnerable to coercive and nonconsensual sex
Involuntary sexual activity reported by:
 74% of sexually active girls younger than 14 years
 60% of those younger than 15 years


Predictors of sexual intercourse (during the early adolescent years)
• Early pubertal development
• History of sexual abuse
• Poverty
• Lack of attentive and nurturing parents
• Cultural and family patterns of early sexual experience
• Lack of school or career goals
• Substance abuse
• Poor school performance or dropping out of school


Factors associated with a delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse
• Living with both parents in a stable family environment
• Regular attendance at places of worship
• Higher family income
• Parental supervision, setting expectations, and parent/child “connectedness”

50% of adolescent pregnancies occur within the first 6 months of initial sexual intercourse (as of 1995)

Many female adolescents are sexually active a year or more before seeking prescription contraceptives


Factors associated with more consistent contraceptive use among sexually active youth
• Academic success in school
• Anticipation of a satisfying future
• Being involved in a stable relationship with a sexual partner


About 9% of males 12-16 will become fathers before age 20

Adolescent fathers are similar to adolescent mothers
• Poorer academic performance
• Higher school drop-out rates
Limited financial resources and decreased income potential
• Common reactions of anger, guilt, and denial
• Relatively few programs exist

The Teen Fathers
Some fathers disappear, while many struggle to be involved (though maybe not financially)
A “large percentage” of teen mothers have children by fathers 20+

Early studies considered teen fathers psychologically unstable

Delinquent behavior stereotype

Prevention Intention
(from a 2009 survey of young adults 18-29: )

Intentions…
• 94% of men and 86% of women believe pregnancy should be planned.
• 86% of men and 88% of women say it is important not to get (or get someone) pregnant at this time in their lives




…Don’t Match Behavior

Unmarried young adults in a sexual relationship not trying to get pregnant or cause a pregnancy:
• 19% use NO contraception at all and 24% use contraception inconsistently.
• In other words, only about half are well protected.
• In fact, 17% of women and 19% of men say it is likely they will have unprotected sex in the next few months.
Why the Gap between Intention and Behavior?
• Fatalism — 39% of men and 44% of women believe “it doesn’t matter whether you use birth control or not; when it is your time to get pregnant it will happen.”
• Suspicion — 32% overall agree with the statement “the government is trying to limit blacks and other minority populations by encouraging the use of birth control.”
o 44% of non-Hispanic blacks
o 46% of Hispanics
• Education
o 30% know “little or nothing” about condoms
o 63% say they know “little or nothing” about birth control pills.
o 44% (of pill users) incorrectly believe that you should take a break from the pill every few years
o 59% of women and 47% of men say it is at least slightly likely they are infertile (vs. 8.4% of women 15-29 actually)
• Fear
o 27% (of women) “extremely or quite likely” using BC pills/ other hormonal methods of contraception will lead to a serious health problem like cancer.
o 36% say it is likely that the pill will cause them to gain weight
o 40% say it will cause “severe” mood swings



• In 2010, of 365,000 births to teens ages 15–19, 18.3% were repeat teen births
 Of these, 86% for a second child
 15% for a third to sixth child

• The percentage of teen births that were repeat declined 6.2% from 2007–2010
• Percentages varied by race/ethnicity:
 AI/AN 21.6%
 Hispanics 20.9%
 Non-Hispanic Black 20.4%
 Asian-Pacific Islanders 17.6%
 Non-Hispanic White 14.8%

• 1 in 5 teen births is a repeat birth
• Efforts to support pregnant and parenting teens should:
 Counsel about birth spacing and provide contraception, including the most effective methods of IUD and implants
 Link teen parents to home visiting programs

Repeat Births
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