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The Industrial Revolution:

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on 8 May 2015

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Transcript of The Industrial Revolution:

What was the Industrial Revolution?
Refers to the great increase in machine production that began in England in the middle 1700.
Previous conditions:
Agricultural revolution:
—large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges.
-Wealthy landowners buy, enclose land once owned by village farmers.
- Enclosures allow experimentation with new agricultural methods.
-Enclosures leave a lot of small farmers needing sustenance.
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England?
The Manchester case:
Resources: Labor force + Waterpower + outlet to the sea (Liverpool).
Effects of industrialization:
Industrialization (The Manchester Case):
The Industrial Revolution (1700-1900):
Main idea:
The world as we know it today was majorly defined by the multiple changes the Industrial Revolution brought forward.
To understand how the Industrial Revolution began and spread and the effects it had on economics, politics and society not only in Europe, but over the world.

Economic, social, political and cultural changes that came forward on a global level due to the greatly increased output of machine made goods that began in England in the 18th century.
Increasing population:
Demand for food and goods (such as cloth).
Large population of workers.

Extensive natural resources.

Expanding economy.

Political stability.

Britain had all of the
(resources needed to produce goods and services) such as land, labor and capital.
Inventions made production faster, cheaper and more profitable.
- Bigger machines needed their own space and resources =

Need for cheaper and better transportation to move raw materials and finished goods.


The star of transportation means. Used steam engine technology.
Key factors that spurred Industrial Revolution:
Industrial Revolution- Industrialization- Factors of production- Factory- Urbanization- Middle Class.
Main idea: The factory system changed the way people lived and worked, bringing positive changes, but also introducing a variety of problems.
Industrialization: The process of developing industries that use machines to produce goods. This affects every aspect of life.
"From this filthy sewer pure golds flows".
Growth of the factory system + Concentration of manufacturers in central locations.
Urbanization: City building and the movement of people to cities.
Rapid urban growth= No development plans, sanitary codes or building codes.
Overcrowding: epidemics and violence.
Terrible working conditions:
Women and Child labor.
Long shifts: About 14 hours a day, 6 days a week + beatings to keep workers awake.
Life span: from about 36 years on rural areas to 17 in cities.
Working class.
Middle class.
"Old money" (landowners).
New: Factory owners, shippers, merchants and bankers.
NEW CLASS: Neither rich, nor poor.
Factory overseers, managers and skilled workers.
Unskilled, vulnerable wage-earners.
New jobs.
Increasing wealth.
Technological progress.
Increased production of goods.
Raised standard of living.
Hope of improvement.
Healthier diets - Better housing - Cheaper clothes.
Expansion of educational opportunities.
Immediate for working class.
Immediate for middle and upper class.
Gradual improvements for the working class during 1800.
Class activity:
Complete pages 239-240 from your workbook.
Industrialization spreads:
Main idea: The Industrialization that began in Great Britain spread to other parts with similar conditions.
The I.R. SHIFTED the world's BALANCE of POWER: it increased competition between industrialized nations and poverty in less-developed nations.
Raw materials.
Destination for obsolete technology.
A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.
1) Laissez-faire.
2) Adam Smith.
3) Capitalism.
4) Utilitarianism.
5) Socialism.
6) Karl Marx.
7) Communism.
8) Union.
9) Strike.
Read and complete pg. 243 -245 from your workbook.
Dependency Theory
: notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. This due to their earlier integration in the "world system" economy. (1950-1970).
Should the government interfere in economic affairs?
"Laissez-faire" economics (Economic liberalism):
The market functions according to NATURAL LAWS so government regulation only interferes with the production of wealth.
New economic system where the means of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
Adam Smith.
David Ricardo.
Thomas Malthus.
Jeremy Bentham.
John Stuart Mill.
Charles Fourier.
Henri de Saint-Simon.
Reforming the Industrial World:
Main idea:
The Industrial Revolution led to economic, social and political reforms, both in theory and practice.
Marxism: Radical Socialism.
The Communist Manifesto
- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Society is divided into warring classes (oppressor and oppressed).
Industrial Capitalism: Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat.
Class struggle (fight between classes) = central factor of social evolution.
Marx, Engels predict the workers will overthrow the owners

The Future According to Marx
Capitalism will eventually destroy itself after the proletariat revolted and seize the means of production.
People should judge ideas, institutions and actions on the basis of their utility - The greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Economical system in which the
means of production
privately owned
and operate for
individual profit
Means of production
Factors of production.
"Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!"
Communism— Form of complete socialism in which people own the means of production collectively and share the profits equally.
Practical Reforms:
1800's: working people became more active in politics.
Voluntary labor associations that spoke in the behalf of all of their members. Illegal until 1825 in England.
Strike: Collective stoppage of activity while demands were not met.
Laws that regulated the worst abuses of industrialization. Linked to unions' pressure.
"Factory Act of 1833" (Child labor).
"Mines Act" of 1842 (No Children on women.
"Ten Hour Act" of 1847.
Other movements:
Women's rights.
During the 1800's,
grew in industrialized countries, even as
foreign expansion

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