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Transcript of Cloud Computing
The consumer has control over the newly-created application but not over the cloud infrastructure.
Example: Force.com, which provides a cloud platform for social and mobile enterprise apps. Cloud Service Model: SaaS This type of model characterizes by providing many users the ability to run the provider’s application from various devices.
Software delivered in a “one to many” model
The provider has total control over the application, cloud infrastructure, storage, etc. This model provides the customer a system infrastructure where he/she can deploy and run any type of software.
The customer possesses control over the operating system, storage and all applications.
This type of model has 3 sub-categories called: Public Cloud, Private Cloud and Hybrid Cloud. Definition of Cloud Computing
Impacts of Cloud Computing: Obstacles and Benefits
Cloud Service Management
Cloud Computing 'Giants'
References What is Cloud Computing? "Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction." Cloud Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Public Cloud Private Cloud Shared resources
It can be used by the general public
Sometimes this infrastructure applies the pay-as-you-go protocol.
Highest levels of efficiency as infrastructure costs are spread out among many users. This type of infrastructure is owned by a single organization and its use is restricted to a selected group of people.
Mainly used by organizations or business with large storage and computational requirements.
Provides higher security needs. Hybrid Cloud This type of infrastructure is a combination of public and private clouds.
In a Hybrid Cloud, all the different infrastructures are connected together to allow data and application portability. Functional Properties Broad Network Access Constant network availability as well as wide range of compatibility(laptops, desktop, tablets, etc). Rapid Elasticity Almost immediate scalability based on current demand. If you need more, you get more. Functional Properties contd. Resource Pooling In a cloud, all resources are pooled and are capable of serving multiple users. This allow resources to be used independently of their location. Non-Functional Properties Response Time Time is money; response time in any cloud-based software is critical for successful business. Fault Tolerance To be able to withstand errors, the cloud uses redundancy in VMs. Non-Functional Properties contd. Security Is a very important requirement that must be tackled the best way possible. As seen further in this presentation, security also represents one of the biggest obstacles in cloud developing. Operational Cost Cost is very affordable since resources in a cloud are only paid for when used. Impacts of Cloud Computing Based on the wide variety of opportunities that cloud computing can provide. Both positive and negative impacts have to be taken into consideration.
Next, the opportunities and challenges of cloud computing will be outlined and explained. Challenges of Cloud Computing Michael Armburst et. al. mentioned in “A View Of Cloud Computing”, the most important obstacles of cloud computing in the following table. Challenges contd. This is closely related to business continuity of the cloud provider.
Downtime of the provider directly affects the user of the cloud.
The obvious solution will be to provide multiple providers for more reliable cloud service, however this will result in a decrease in each provider’s revenue. Service Availability Challenges contd. Security Complete security in cloud computing is one of the main problems while developing this technology.
Different levels of security are present:
Physical servers: security of building, personal, etc.
Virtual servers: strong OS needed in host computers.
Network: careful access control to prevent misuse and modification of cloud data and resources. Challenges contd. “Cloud users face security threats both from outside and inside the cloud.” (Michael Armburst et. al.) Data Lock-in It refers to customer data being “locked-in” the providers storage without the ability of retrieval, i.e, provider going out of business. Redundancy is necessary. The back-up of important data is very important to prevent lost or hacked data from being completely unreachable by the customer. Challenges contd. Economics Include data retrieval/transfer costs can be very high.
Service migration for companies, meaning the transfer of a company’s online presence to another site. Challenges contd. Ethical Very simple questions but extremely hard to decide which answer is the correct one. -Who owns the data once it is in the cloud?
-Does the user or the company subscribing to a cloud service own the data?
-Does the cloud provider own it since they provide the actual storage space? Benefits of Cloud Computing Cost Reduction Depending on the cloud type (Public, Private or Hybrid) will result in very low or no upfront costs.
Companies can safe money renting space for storage, servers and/or database.
Cost cuts in employee software upgrade or registration.
Pay only what you use Benefits contd. Global Accessibility Cloud computing allows users to acces data and application anywhere as long as internet access is available.
Corporations get company-wide acces to computer applications.
Data and resources are not fixed to a single computer. Benefits contd. Extreme Scalability No up-front commitment, server capacity can be increased only when necessary.
The appearance of infinite resources available on demand. Benefits contd. Focus on What's Important Management of storage, security and resources are taken care by a reliable third party.
Company or customer can focus on the primary projects being worked on. Benefits contd. Increase Development Agility Provides teams better flexibility for application development by providing complete access to previous applications, other databases and useful resources. Room for Advance Processing Power In a cloud, if the back end is designed as a grid system, the customer could take advantage of the entire network’s processing power.
Greater performance potential Cloud Management Cloud Computing serves can be divided into 3 management categories: Business Support
Portability Each category handles aspects of cloud computing that are necessary for the service. Business Support Handles all types of management related to the business as a whole. Customer information
Contract negotiation and setup
Payment processing, etc Configuration Handles the configuration of the technical aspects of the cloud. Automatic deployment of resources or services.
Monitoring the cloud operations and performance
Providing a measure of current service demand or status. (processing power, storage capacity, etc) Portability Handles the overall system portability and most importantly, it most valuable aspect, the data. Different levels of data transfer capability.
Service interoperability: “... the ability of cloud consumers to user their data and services with different cloud providers.” (Fang Liu et. al.) Cloud Computing Giants Some examples of successful companies providing cloud computing services are: IBM
Google A brief explanation of each of this company’s services will be outlined. IBM : SmartCloud Cloud types: Private and Hybrid.
Service models: Object storage implementation
Instant Environment deployment
Secure environment for development, deployment and delivery of applications.
Extensive Cloud management support
OS options: AIX | Windows -Software as a Service
-Platform as a Service
-Infrastructure as a Service Amazon: EC2 EC2 features: "Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, allows you to set up and configure everything about your instances from OS up to your applications." (http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/) Amazon Elastic Block Storage (Amazon EBS), permanent storage independent to the life of the instance(set of resources) running.
High Performance Computing (HPC) Clusters, high performance network capability
Elastic IP Addresses, IP addresses associated directly with your account Server Options: Linux/Unix | Windows Google: Cloud Products Google App Engine (PaaS) Auto Scaling, dynamic change in instances of the service to follow current demand patterns.
CloudWatch, visual monitoring tool of resources, operational performance, network traffic, etc
Among others Amazon: EC2 contd. References Armbrust, Michael et. al. “A View of Cloud Computing.” Communications of the ACM. Volume 53. Issue 4(2010):pg. 50-58.
Mell, Peter, and Timothy Grance. “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing.” National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-145 (2011).
CloudU. “Understanding the Cloud Computing Stack: PaaS, SaaS, IaaS.” http://www.rackspace.com/knowledge_center/cloudu/. Sponsored by RackSpace Hosting.
Liu, Fang et. al. “NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture.” National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 500-292 (2011).
Villegas, David, and S. Masoud Sadjadi. “Mapping Non-Functional Requirements to Cloud Applications.” Florida International University
CloudU, “Cloudonomics: The Economics of Cloud Computing.” http://www.rackspace.com/knowledge_center/cloudu/. Sponsored by RackSpace Hosting.
Zhang, Qi, Lu Cheng, and Raoug Boutaba. “Cloud Computing: State-of-the-art and Research Challenges.” The Brazilian Computer Society 2010.
Hastings, Robin. “Cloud Computing.” Library Technology Reports (2009) References CloudU, “Say Goodbye to DIY Data Centers: An Infrastructure-as-a-Service Intensive.” http://www.rackspace.com/knowledge_center/cloudu/. Sponsored by RackSpace Hosting.
Sarga, Libor. “Cloud Computing: An Overview.” Journal of Systems Integration (2012)
Rodrigues, Thoran, “The Five big Myths of Cloud Computing.” The Enterprise Cloud. http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/datacenter/the-five-big-myths-of-cloud-computing/5588?tag=content;siu-container
Thomas, Dave, “Cloud Computing – Benefits and Challenges!.” Journal of Object Technology. Vol.8, No. 3 (2009)
CoudU, “Cloud Security and What Venders and Customer Need To Do To Stay Secure.” http://www.rackspace.com/knowledge_center/cloudu/. Sponsored by RackSpace Hosting.
Walters, Richard, ‘The Cloud Challenge: Realising The Benefits Without Increasing Risk.” Computer Fraud & Security (2012).
IBM, “The Right Applications for your Cloud Strategy.” IBM Global Business Services, Solution Brief. http://public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/en/gbs03054usen/GBS03054USEN.PDF References Amazon Web Services, http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
IBM Smart Cloud, http://www.ibm.com/cloud-computing/ca/en/what-is-cloud-computing.html
Google Cloud Platform, https://cloud.google.com/ NIST's definition of Cloud Computing describes this technology more precisely. Allows the design and development of apps using Google's platform. This product enables the user to have a huge range of scalability. Google Compute Engine (IaaS) Provides High-Performance computing for all types of data processing while keeping an affordable price. Google: Cloud Products contd. Google Cloud Storage A highly reliable storage infrastructure complete with optimized data access. Google Cloud SQL MySQL databases running in the Google Cloud. Maintenance-free service since the database is managed by Google. Conclusion Cloud computing and all its features and benefits directly affect software engineering since it provides a faster way to develop applications and services with better back-end support.
Similarly to the concept of model-driven engineering, Cloud Computing provides extra time for developers and companies to focus on the most important part of software design and development. Cloud Functional & Non-Functional Requirements Cloud computing contains very important functional and non-functional properties that help achieve a complete understanding of this evolving technology.
The following slides outline the most important properties that characterize cloud computing and its services. EC2 features contd.