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Roles of the President (Woodrow Wilson)
Transcript of Roles of the President (Woodrow Wilson)
Education: College of New Jersey
Other Gov. Positions: Gov. of New Jersey
In Office: Mar. 4, 1913- Mar. 4, 1921
Political Party: Democrat
Notable Events: WWI (1914-1918)
Died: Feb. 3, 1924 in Washington, D.C. Roles of the President In the late stages of the WWI, Wilson took personal control of negotiations with Germany, including the armistice. In 1918, he issued his Fourteen Points, his view of a post-war world that could avoid another terrible conflict. In 1919, he went to Paris to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of defunct empires. In 1919, Wilson engaged in an argument with Henry Cabot Lodge and the Republican-controlled Senate over giving the League of Nations power to force the U.S. into a war. Wilson collapsed with a crippling stroke that left his wife Edith in control until he left office in March 1921. The Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles, the U.S. never joined the League, and the Republicans won a landslide in 1920 by denouncing Wilson's policies. Wilson's administration did not plan for the process of demobilization at the war's end. Republican gains in the Senate meant that his opposition would have to consent to the appointment of commission members. Instead, Wilson favored the prompt dismantling of wartime boards and regulatory agencies. Demobilization proved chaotic and violent. Four million soldiers were sent home with little planning, little money, and few benefits. Major strikes in steel, coal, and meatpacking followed in 1919. Serious race riots hit Chicago, Omaha, and two dozen other cities. As the national election year of 1912 drew nearer, many Democrats throughout the country began to look more closely at Woodrow Wilson as a serious candidate for the Presidency. Even though he was a newcomer to politics, Wilson had charisma, had popular support, and had accomplished nearly every one of his goals while in office. Furthermore, the Democratic Party could not seriously consider many others: although many Democrats in Congress sought the party's nomination, they lacked Wilson's charisma and record. The party had also suffered losses under the "Great Commoner," William Jennings Bryan, who had already been defeated in three Presidential elections and claimed that he would not disappoint the party by trying to run again. Many thought Wilson was the best option, and the Democratic Party awarded him the nomination at the 1912 convention. Woodrow Wilson Introduction Chief of State Commander in Chief Chief of Party The president is "boss" for millions of government workers in the Executive Branch, deciding how the laws of the United States are to be enforced and choosing officials and advisers to help run the Executive Branch. [Article 2, Section 1] Only Congress has the actual power to make laws. But the Constitution gives the president power to influence Congress in its lawmaking. Presidents may urge Congress to pass new laws or veto bills that they do not favor. [Article 2, Section 3] The president decides what American diplomats and ambassadors shall say to foreign governments. With the help of advisers, the president makes the foreign policy of the United States. [Article 2, Section 3] This role requires a president to be an inspiring example for the American people. As the American Chief of State, the president is a living symbol of the nation. It is considered a great honor for any citizen to shake the president's hand. [Article 2, Section 3] This role requires the president to manage the fifteen executive depots and federal agencies, such as NASA, and to help carry out those policies. The president is in charge of the U.S. armed forces: the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. The president decides where troops shall be stationed, where ships shall be sent, and how weapons shall be used. All military generals and admirals take their orders from the President. [Article 2, Section2] In this role, the president helps members of his political party get elected or appointed to office. The president campaigns for those members who have supported his policies. At the end of a term the president may campaign for reelection. This role requires that the president maintains a certain trust with the people, since it is his/her duty to work for the public interest. In addition, the president must place the nation's best interests above the interests of any one group or citizen. Some examples are educating citizens on important issues, leading by example, and concentrating on issues that affect American citizens. In his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass major progressive reforms. In his first term, Wilson successfully pushed a legislative agenda that few presidents may have equaled, and remained unmatched up until the New Deal. The agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was diminished by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. He also had Congress pass the Adamson Act, which imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads. Wilson, at first unsympathetic, became a major advocate for women's suffrage after public pressure convinced him that to oppose woman's suffrage was politically unwise. Although Wilson promised African Americans "fair dealing...in advancing the interests of their race in the United States" the Wilson administration implemented a policy of racial segregation for federal employees. Although considered a modern liberal visionary giant as President, however, in terms of assisting with domestic race relations, Wilson was "deeply racist in his thoughts and politics, and apparently was comfortable being so." In 1914, the U.S. had made a declaration of neutrality. President Wilson warned the citizens not to take side in the war as to not endanger wider U.S. policy, stating that the U.S. could no longer be "[a] great nation of peace" if divisions were established. The U.S. maintained neutrality despite increasing pressure placed on Wilson after the sinking of the British passenger liner RMS Lusitania with arms and American citizens on board, but after the revelation of the Zimmermann Telegram, Wilson took America into WWI to make "the world safe for democrat." The U.S. raised a massive army through conscription and Wilson gave command to General John J. Pershing, allowing Pershing a free hand his own tactics, strategy and even diplomacy. Woodrow Wilson delivered his War Message to Congress on the evening of April 2, 1917. Wilson announced that his previous position of "armed neutrality" was no longer tenable now that the Imperial German Government had announced that it would use its submarines to sink any vessel approaching the ports of Great Britain, Ireland or any of the Western Coasts of Europe. The German government, Wilson said, "means to stir up enemies against us at our very doors". He then warned that "if there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with a firm hand of repression." Wilson closed with the statement that the world must be again safe for democracy. With 50 Representatives and 6 Senators in opposition, the declaration of war by the United States against Germany was passed by the Congress on April 4, 1917, and was approved by the President on April 6, 1917. Following Wilson's return from Europe to the United States in July 1919, Wilson presented the treaty to the Senate and spent much of the summer trying to build bipartisan support among senators for its approval. He argued that although it was imperfect, it was better than the sort of punitive treaty the British and French would have imposed on Germany. In September, having little success in winning Senate votes, Wilson began a speaking tour to build public interest in the treaty and to promote U.S. participation in the new League of Nations. Near the end of the tour, he collapsed from exhaustion, and a few days later, after returning to the White House, he suffered a massive stroke. Wilson believed the presidency was more than an impersonal institution; he believed it is dynamic, alive, and personal. Practicing this philosophy, Wilson delivered his first State of the Union address to Congress but due to medical reasons, could not due the same for his second. In his first address, Wilson told the country that he felt America should aide foreign countries and attempt to steer them toward democracy. He also stated that the only way this could happen was if the U.S. set the example within its own borders.. By stating these feelings, Wilson was hoping to direct future executive decisions and American citizen's feelings in his direction. Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_wilson#War_policy_.E2.80.93_World_War_I
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/sou.php Not A: