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Designing Resilient Schools - open online academy, new york
Transcript of Designing Resilient Schools - open online academy, new york
Hello! I am Eleena Jamil and I've been asked by your course coordinators Dr. Ivan Shumkov and Illac Diaz to put together some ideas on designing resilient schools in the tropics
open online academy, new york
The truth is, there are not many structures that can withstand strong winds and floods like the ones we saw during Typhoon Haiyan
....but we can try to lessen the devastating effects of extreme weather
the most typhoon resistant building is arguably a square or circular bunker with thick walls and roofs, small windows and no roof overhangs
...but it will make quite a depressing school environment for children.
In designing a resilient school, there are a number of basic but important design factors to consider
Schools, especially classrooms in the tropics should be bright, airy and naturally ventilated
CHOOSE THE RIGHT BUILDING MATERIAL
CONSIDER A MATERIAL THAT IS INEXPENSIVE AND LOCALLY AVAILABLE SO THAT REBUILDING EFFORTS CAN BE KEPT AT A MINIMUM
YOU MAY ALSO WANT CONSIDER A MATERIAL THAT IS EASY TO WORK WITH SO THAT THE LOCALS ARE FAMILIAR WITH SO THAT ALL CAN HELP WITH THE REBUILDING OF THEIR SCHOOLS
Whichever material or building methods you choose to use in your school, the right connection details, anchoring and bracing are extremely important.
Repetitive structural elements with minimal unique joints can ease reconstruction and rehabilitation
of damaged buildings. You can also design buildings so that damaged parts can be repaired without having to dismantle the whole structure.
SHAPE OF THE BUILDING
A square plan is more stable against the forces of the wind than a rectangular or L-shaped plan as it allows high winds to go around them.
ARRANGEMENT OF BUILDINGS
Rather than having classrooms arranged in continuous rows, try a detached or clustered arrangement. The latter allows wind to pass between classrooms, lessening the forces on the structure
A detached classroom or classrooms arranged in small clusters can help restrict typhoon damage and make repair work more manageable
SIZE OF CLASSROOM
Generally, a hipped roof is more wind resilient than a double-pitched or mono-pitched roof.
The flat, vaulted and domed roofs are the most wind resilient structures.
Consideration should additionally be given to what is appropriate for the tropical climate where external shading is necessary.
Large overhangs should generally be avoided as high wind force will build under them and cause damage.
However, you can build overhangs and verandah roofs as separate structures rather than extensions of the main building to help isolate the damage. The isolated roofs may get blown away without damaging the rest of the school.
Making spaces in your school naturally ventilated can sometimes help make it more resilient. The internal pressure which builds up in a building as a result of strong winds may be relieved by providing a corresponding opening on the windward and leeward side.
There are numerous ways to make a building more resilient to extreme climate as well as easier to rehabilitate and reconstruct. The following slides are some of the basic ideas for the tropics.
The basic design ideas presented here are by no means exhaustive and I look forward to more resilient ideas from you.
All the best with the course!
A STRONG BASE (2)
A SOLID BASE (1)
A solid base is required to anchor the structure to the ground.
A cyclonic storm is often accompanied by torrential rain and tidal surge (in coastal areas) resulting in floods.
Design a sturdy base and consider raising the building off the ground on stilts. Stilts that are properly braced in both the principal directions will provide stability under lateral loads.
Overturning can be a problem for lightweight structures such as timber or bamboo. This occurs when the weight of the building is insufficient to resist the tendency to be blown over.
DETAILS ARE IMPORTANT
MATERIALITY & METHODS
Consider materials that are locally available and inexpensive, so that repairs or reconstruction can take place easily
Also consider using simple construction methods so that the local community can easily help with reconstruction
As an end note, bear in mind that high construction standards and properly maintained structures are the most effective means to ensure resistance to strong winds.