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Skill Acqusition in Sport

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Matt Phillips

on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of Skill Acqusition in Sport

Skill Acqustition in Sport
Information Processing and Learning Theories
Reaction Time
Is the speed at which we are able to process information and make decisions
Is the information about reactions to a persons performance of a task.
Learning Theories
Measurable and relatively permanent change in behavior through experience, instruction, or study.
The way in which someone or something functions
Information Processing Models
Two different models, Welford (1976) and Whiting(1969). They both have a similar process but use different terminology.
• Stimulus Identification stage/input stage
• Response identification/selection stage/central stage
• Response programming stage/the output stage
Welford (1968)
Intrinsic Feedback
Two types of Intrinsic Feedback

Extereoceptive (outside the body)
Proprioceptive (Within the body
Knowledge of Performance
Knowledge of results
Positive feedback
it is used to inform the athletes as to what was correct about the movement. Athletes need to know if a movement is correct as this provides the reference point for future execution of the movement. Having positive feedback is good and essential in motivating athletes.
Negative feedback
it is used to inform the athletes as to what was incorrect about the movement, the negative feedback must include information’s on the action that is required by the athlete to achieve the correct movement.

Whiting (1969)
By Matt Phillips & Samantha Martin
Short term Memory
Long Term Memory
Factors that affect reaction time
Psychological refractory period
How do coaches attempt to improve performers response time
Positive and negative feedback
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Cognitive learning theory
Thorndike's laws of learning
Simple Information Processing
The most simple form of information processing is:
This plays a vital role in information processing, especially when interpreting things and relating them to previous experiences.

Memory is split into 3 components,
Short term sensory stores
Short term memory
Long term memory.
Short term sensory stores
All stimuli enters the information processing system passes through short term sensory store.
These stores hold information for only a few hundred milliseconds.
It then gets replaced by the next stimuli.
This filtering process is known as selective attention.
Selective attention:
Important information only gets concentrated on.
Important information gets filtered through the shot-term memory.
Unimportant information gets filtered out.
Helps us react quicker by ignoring irrelevant information

Limited amount of capacity and length of time stored.
Functions between STSS and LTM.
Referred to as Working memory/work space
STM Capacity = (7 ± 2)
Length of time can be extended if practiced/rehearsed.

Holds a large amount of information
Said to have unlimited Capacity
Holds information that has been learned/practiced/experienced.
Once it is learned it should remain their indefinitely.
Extrinsic (Augmented) feedback
Schmidt, R.W. 2009. WWE motor learning and performance. Leeds: Human Kinetics.504-510
Carnell,C (2002). Advanced PE for OCR AS. Oxford: Heinemann. 137.
carnell.D (2008). OCR Pe Physical Education As. Revision Guide. London: Heinemann. 75.
Davis, B (2005). Physical education and the study of sport . 5th ed. China : Elsevier mosby. 312-313

Increase stimuls intensity
Body Temperature
Sensory system receiving the stimulus
external factors
stimulus identity
Choice reaction time
When there is only one stimulus such as a starters gun, this is called a simple reaction time. as there is only one response which is to run.
Hicks Law (1952)
states that states that the reaction time is increasing in the number of alternative reactions-stimuli, so this is when someone is faced with making a decision.
Mental rehearsal
Stimulus response compatibility
Cue detection
Improve physical fitness
Selective attention
Level of arousal
Warm up

If we have selected a stimulus and are processing that information when a second one comes along we are then unable to attend to it and process the second one until we have finished working on the first one, this extra reaction time is known as the Psychological refractory period.
This follows the movement of completion. From an outside source a display of stopwatch, coaches comments, gymnastics score and video. It is ideally about outcome, the supplements intrinsic information, sometimes intrinsic feedback is not enough, it has to be under the control of an instructor.
knowledge of performance (KP)
- it is the information about the technique and performance, this can be provided verbally from the coach or visually via a video. This enables the athlete to establish a kinaesthetic reference for the correct movement such as analysis of the sprinters action.

Knowledge of results (KR)
information with regards the result of the athlete’s performance such as the sprinters 100 metre time. The success is in terms of the goal, this can be redundant or irritating. If a performer is a beginner, they may not know the desired response that they would like or get from their coach.
Hulls drive reduction theory
This is a theory of motivation, it became popular during the 1940’s and 1950’s as a way to explain behaviour, learning and motivation. The theory was created by behaviourist Clark Hull and further developed by his collaborator Kenneth Spence.
Classical conditioning is the process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one. Pavlov’s dogs- Ivan Pavlov

The Operant conditioning is a major connectionist theory and is concerned with changing the response in a given situation. A psychologist called Skinner developed this theory by experimenting on rats he placed in a maze.
The best theory is the gestalt theory, Gestalt theories believe that skills are the best presented as whole problems. The learner will solve the problem by drawing on previous experience and by developing a perception of what is required to answer the task successfully, this means that the learner must be motivated, have a positive self-image in order to reach a solution.
This law is split into three laws these are:
Law of readiness
Law of effect
Law of exercise
Social Learning Theory
Bandura (1977)
This is used to explain how your behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of other people, it suggests that much social behaviour is learned through observation of others. There are four processes in observational learning: attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation.
Motor Programme and Control
Motor control
is how athletes manage to adjust their movements whilst they are performing.

Open Loop Theory:
this is when a stimulus occurs the plan of action is stored in the long term memory and comprises of the executive motor programme.
Closed Loop Theory:
closed loop control is usually seen more in lower level performers or operates at lower level than open loop control.
Schema Theory
This is a build-up of experiences which can be adapted and used to meet the demands of new situations. The process of applying previous experience to a new situation is called transfer. The theory is based on the idea that plans are not stored as separate items are in closed loop theory, instead they are stored in the long term memory as relationships with motor programme.
Phases of learning
Fitts and Posner (1967)
Paul Fitts and Michael posner (1967) identified one of the better known models which in its turn has been expanded upon by the three phases are:

• Cognitive- Beginning or novice
• Associative- intermediate or practice
• Autonomous- advanced or fine-tuning
Transfer of learning
This is the way in which skills can be structured and presented within different practices depends greatly on skills that have been learnt previously or will learnt in the future. The influence or effect of performing and practising one skill on the learning of another.
These are split into different transfers:
Positive and negative transfer
Zero transfer
Intra-task transfer
Bilateral transfer
Transfer and instructional methods
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