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AP Biology Stem Cell Research Prezi

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Yue Fung

on 2 March 2011

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Transcript of AP Biology Stem Cell Research Prezi

Modern Appicatlion of Stem Cell Research A Cure To Leukemia? Yue Fung -AP Biology A Block Leukemia is the occurence of cancer in bone marrow and blood, also being the most common form of cancer in children. Leukemia develops inside white blood cells in blood and marrow, afflicting the individual. This was first discovered as early as the 19th century when patients examined had abnormally high amounts of white blood cells. The name "Leukemia" is derived from the Greek words "leukos" and "haima", leukos meaning white and haima meaning blood. Stem cells from bone marrow are used to treat this condition, as the only way to treat it is to replace the malfunctioning bone marrow that is producing the cancerous white blood cells. There are many types of leukemia ranging from severe to damaging. The most common type is acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This causes fever, pale skin, loss of appetite, fatigue, bone pain, and frequent infections but not necessarily death. However it can be fatal if it spreads. The more severe type is chronic myelogenous leukemia. The bone marrow loses its capacity to function and treatment is less effective as all the cells are crowded by cancerous white cells. Though donors are very limited right now and the sad fact that those with money are getting first priority, it is very important that we continue researching stem cells to treat this condition, as it is one of the leading causes of death in the world as it has been around for many centuries. Through research, a cure can be found and give everyone a new beginning to their lives that they never had. How Can Stem Cells Help Patients? Bibliography http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/leuks.html
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/sctoday/images/BloodStemCells.jpg What Is Life Like With Leukemia? Leukemia is a very serious condition and should definitely be treated with the utmost care. When someone lives with leukemia, their lives are forever altered, especially those during youth. They lose their childhood, spending everyday in the hospital and at home, waiting with the false optimism that someone would kindly donate matching bone marrow necessary for a recovery. Even in adulthood, the shock is enormous as many afflicted patiences spiral into depression and sorrow. As the cancer can spread easily and affect your organs, there can be many side effects. If it should spread to your brain, mental retardation can also be a result. Furthermore, patients are always sick from infections or colds as their immune system doesn't function properly. Even so, after a transplant, those afflicted are confined for a year, having no contact with the outside world. The toll of leukemia is high, as it also puts shackles on the patience and also their family members, limiting what they can do. *Lymph nodes are organs all over the body that trap foreign particles acting as filters.* What is Leukemia? In the case of leukemia, the afflicted white cells need the stem cells from other white blood cells or parts that contain them. Such stem cells would be those inside bone marrow. This is because this bone marrow contains somatic stem cells which can virtually produce any kind of cell necessary, including the white blood cells that help make up our blood. This also requires chemotherapy however, to destroy the previous cancerous white blood cells in which they are replaced with healthy functioning ones. This can be done by eliminating the malfunctioning bone marrow that is full of cancerous white blood cells by radiation and transplanting new, healthy bone marrow to produce white cells and develop the new immune system. Symptoms of Leukemia As leukemia can affect the body in several ways, there are many sympots and diagnoses that can be used to deduce whether someone is carrying this disease. The deprivation of a functioning immune system causes them to become sick easily, as they can also become anemic. This lack of oxygen causes them to tire easily, as they also appear pale. Their platelets may be destroyed by the cancerous white cells, so they may bleed easily and for a longer period of time and they may have soreness or pain in the joints or limbs. It can also cause swollen lymph nodes and a loss of appetite. Those with leukemia normally survive depending on their status. Virtually anyone can survive leukemia, though the battle can take many many years and alot of resources. In the world, those without the necessary resources cannot afford the treatment of chemotherapy, let alone a transplant on the rare occasion that someone is willing to donate bone marrow with a matching type. Furthermore, many people are listed in line to receive a transplant, narrowing the margin of receiving a transplant and lowering the chance of surviving. Prognosis Occurence: How Can Stem Cells Treat This Condition? Statistics This diagram shows the various types of white blood cells in the immune system that the somatic cell in bone marrow, called a hematopoietic stem cell, can become. From 2003-2007, the median age at death for leukemia was 74 years of age. Approximately 3.0% died under age 20; 3.1% between 20 and 34; 3.3% between 35 and 44; 6.4% between 45 and 54; 12.6% between 55 and 64; 21.6% between 65 and 74; 31.6% between 75 and 84; and 18.4% 85+ years of age. From 2003-2007, the median age at diagnosis for leukemia was 66 years of age. Approximately 10.9% were diagnosed under age 20; 4.8% between 20 and 34; 5.4% between 35 and 44; 10.2% between 45 and 54; 15.4% between 55 and 64; 19.8% between 65 and 74; 22.9% between 75 and 84; and 10.6% 85+ years of age. Mortality:
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