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diane castillo

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of socio1

Chapter 1 The Study of Sociology Project in Sociology THE STUDY OF SOCIOLOGY THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION THE RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIOLOGY TO OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES PSYCHOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY - is the study of humanity and the similarities and diversity of cultures - is mainly interested in a wide range of mental, psychological, and behavioral processes. Its focus is on individual behavior. ECONOMICS - is concerned with human activities related to the production, consumption, and distribution of goods, services and wealth within societies, as well as commercial exchange POLITICAL SCIENCE - is concerned with the history and theory of government HISTORY - is primarily interested in the study of past events of human beings AUGUST COMTE (1798 - 1857) - He is a French philosopher, believed in applying scientific method to the study of society and social relations. - He coined the term 'sociology', which is derived from the Latin socius which means social or being with others, and the Greek logos meaning study or science. - He is credited for being father of sociology (Timasheff 1967 : 17-29). - He published the book Positive Philosophy, in which he summarized the stages of development of all knowledge about humanity. - He is German economist and philosopher, was one of the influential thinkers of the nineteenth century whose ideas persist up to present time. - Together with Friedrich Engels, a lifelong friend, he wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1847. - He believed that the history is a continuous struggle between conflicting ideas and forces, and that the most important change was economic. KARL MAX (1818 - 1883) EMILE DURKHEIM
(1858 - 1977) - He was the first French academic sociologist conferred by the University of Paris a doctor's degree in sociology in 1892 and, 6 years later, the first to hold a chair in sociology. - Among his best books are the The Division of Labor in Society, The Rules of Sociological Method, Suicide and Elementary Forms of Religious Life. - He was a German economist. - He believed that power and prestige are the major causes of inequality. - He wrote significant books, the best known of which are The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism, The Theory of Social and Economics Organization, and The Methodology of Social Sciences. MAX WEBER (1864 - 1920) 1. To understand the basic concepts, language, and theories of sociology.

2. To become familiar with the strategies sociologists use to study human society.

3. To describe and explain major features of your own society, beginning with the institutions that are closest to your own experience.

4. To understand the social dimensions of inequality and difference.

5. To decide whether you have an interest in further coursework in sociology and if so, to provide you a solid basis for further study. WHY STUDY SOCIOLOGY? THE QUESTION OF A VALUE-FREE SOCIOLOGY THE FUTURE SOCIOLOGY As we stand in the 21st century, sociology is still relevant in a world of increasing globalization, despite diverse theoretical approaches and involved in multidisciplinary researches. The idea of indigenous concepts and theories is being promoted. The Interactionist Perspective The conflict approach draws much of its inspiration from the work of Karl Marx and argues that the structure of society and the nature of social relationships are the result of past and ongoing conflicts. Symbolic interactionists contend that society is possible because human beings have the ability to communicate with one another by means of symbols. They say that we act toward people, objects, and events on the basis of the meanings we impart to them. Consequently, we experience the world as constructed reality. The Conflict Perspective The Functionalist Perspective The structural-functional-or, more simply, functionalist-perspective sees society as a system. Functionalists identify the structural characteristics and functions and dysfunctions of institutions, and distinguish between manifest functions and latent functions. Functionalists also typically assume that most members of a society share a consensus regarding their core beliefs and values. Contemporary sociologists acknowledge three general theoretical perspectives, or ways of looking at how various social phenomena are related to one another. These are the functionalist, the conflict, and the symbolic interactionist perspectives. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES A critical issue that has long confronted sociologists is the question of a value-free sociology. The basic question pertains to the main role of sociologists in society. The issue of value-free sociology still rages.

The positivist stance is that only the use of the scientific method can provide the truth in its research, so sociologists must be neutral, objective or value-free in their outlook and not take sides or make personal judgements. Science requires the sociologist to objective, to avoid bias when interpreting data and investigation findings.

The activist sociologist challenges this position and argues that it is impossible to be 'value-free' in contemporary society. To be value-free is to support the status quo. This radical view of sociology states that, sociologist s' technical knowledge puts them at a certain advantage in proposing and advocating reforms.

Sociological research cannot be value-free. is difficult for one to objectively study both sides; a study must inevitably lead to bias. C. Wright Mills(1970) as mentioned by Marsh (1996:113) pointed out that social scientist cannot avoid choices of values in their research. Political and moral concerns are the central to sociology, hence, it is impossible to achieve value freedom. Submitted by:
Castillo, Dianarose A. (not graduating) - deal with objects and processes in nature and provide information on the nonhuman and physical aspects in the natural world. - NATURAL SCIENCES - deal with people, their behavior and social system. - SOCIAL SCIENCES - is the systematized and detailed explanation of any phenomenon. The body of knowledge about this phenomenon is obtained through observation or experiment. WHAT IS SCIENCE? THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY IN EUROPE The development of Sociology in the Philippines can be divided into three categories (1) when in it regarded as a Social Philisophy, (2) when it is regarded as a welfare or problem oriented, and (3) when it is geared more towards scientific orientation.

I. Sociology viewed as a Social Philosophy started at the University of Santo Tomas when Fr. Valentin Marin initiated it with Criminology, which was followed by A.W. Salt and Murray Bartlett at University of the Philippines - Manila and by Clyde Helfin at Siliman University - Dumaguete. This approach lasted until the 1950's.

II. As a problem or welfare oriented approach of the study was introduced by the first Filipino to acquire a Ph.D in Sociology and has written the book, An Introduction to Sociology, in 1938 - Serafin N. Macaraig. He attempted to introduce the scientific view of Sociology but it became a failure since he was using a substandard theories in courses and teachers orientation.

III. By 1950's, Socioly was introduced with more emphasis on its scientific orientation. Which was done by (a) increasing the number of Sociological student grantees, (b) establishing social science research centers, (c) growing frequencies on seminars, and (d) publication of journals. This had made the people aware of the importance of sociological facts in the decision-making process.

In the Philippines at recent, more studies had been undergone to give a future solution to the recent wars in the Mindanao. DEVELOPMENT SOCIOLOGY IN THE PHILIPPINES
American Sociology. In the United States, sociology and the modern university system arose together. The first department of sociology was established at the University of Chicago in 1893, and Chicago served as a "social laboratory" at the beginning of the century.Mid centuryy sociologists crafted survey techniques and refined models of society. "New breed" sociologists in the 1960s and 1970s refined Marxism and established new research approaches and perspectives. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES
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