Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Slavery & the Antebellum South

No description
by

Robert Rhodes

on 30 October 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Slavery & the Antebellum South

Slavery & the Antebellum South
Slavery & the South
Objectives
Articulate the differences in social, economic, and legal status of slaves in the antebellum South.

Speculate why the institution of slavery existed

Identify some of the arguments offered by 19th century abolitionists and pro-slavery groups

Resistance to Slavery
Objectives
Examine social movements that resisted slavery
Analyze and interpret slave resistance

Civil War
A common assumption to explain the cause of the American Civil War was that the North was no longer willing to tolerate slavery as being part of the fabric of US society and that the political power brokers in Washington were planning to abolish slavery throughout the Union. Therefore for many people slavery is the key issue to explain the causes of the American Civil War. However, it is not as simple as this and slavery, while a major issue, was not the only issue that pushed American into the ‘Great American Tragedy’. By April 1861, slavery had become inextricably entwined with state rights, the power of the federal government over the states, the South’s ‘way of life’ etc. – all of which made a major contribution to the causes of the American Civil War.
To understand slavery, we have to understand ...

the Southern Economy vs the Northern Economy.
the Southern way of life vs the Northern way of life.
Society's values and beliefs towards non-whites, especially "Negroes."
Using Historical Perspective ...
... look at slavery through the lens of a southerner
Would you believe slavery is a "necessary evil?"
Remember
We don't have to agree with the idea or institution. As historians, we try to uncover why it existed, how it affected people's lives, and, possibly, what's the legacy.
What do we consider the South?
The South
Confederate & Union
There's a difference in the maps!
Do the Wile e Coyote and Br'er Rabbit Stories resemble each other? Explain.
The US Economy
before Civil War
The South
The North
Urban Society
Large immigrant population
Could be absorbed into society/work easier
Economy relied on
industrial factories
, and the
inexpensive labor
of women, children, and immigrants
Industrial Revolution
(ca. 1805) expands use of machines & factories in
mass-producing goods
Use
machines
for work
Small family farms
Work - difficult, low pay, but free
Rural
Society
Agricultural society reliant on production of
cash crops
Slave-based Plantations (
slave labor
)
Rely on
man power
for work
Work - harsh conditions, no pay, no personal freedom, and enslaved
King
Cotton
and
Tobacco
Cotton 2/3 of exports (1850)
25% owned slaves (mostly 3-5)
12% owned more than 20 slaves
Populations of North & South
1820
1860
Which has the greater population?
Which cities have the largest populations?
How do you know?
Industry
Largest Cities in 1860
1. New York, NY - 813, 669
2. Philadelphia, PA - 565,529
3. Brooklyn, NY - 266,661
4. Baltimore, MD - 212, 418
5. Boston, MA - 177,840
6. New Orleans, LA - 168,675
7. Cincinnati, OH - 161,044
8. St. Louis, MO - 160,773
9. Chicago, IL - 112,172
10. Buffalo, NY - 81,129
** By 1860, only 26 cities had a population of more than 30,000 people.**
Based on this map:
Which had most of the farmland?
Which had most industry (factories)?
What leads you to believe this?
What types of industry?
What types of agriculture?
What can the concentration of
railroads tell us?
... and to understand slavery and the Civil War, we have to understand the basic economic and geographical differences of the North and South.

Why?
1860 Census

U.S. population - 31,443,321
Southern Whites - 8 million
Northern Whites - 20 million
Slaves - 3,953,760 (mostly in south)
Interdependence & Differences
South
Provides north with cash crops, iron, and mules
Slave labor
Buys food, weapons, shoes from north

Disliked Puritan values: no drink or harsh language, enjoyed leisure - especially on Sundays
Landowners happy to "break even" financially
Women: (elites) had slaves do their work
30 Public Schools
Non-Slave owners [usually] weren't
abolitionists
?
North
Exports tobacco and spins cotton to turn into textiles (threads, blankets, clothes)
Invest in mechanical reapers and steel plows
Forces high tariffs (taxes on imports) to have South buy northern products

Activists
Seen as greedy and boorish
Women: hard working, educated (doctors, writers), activists
291 Public Schools
How did southerners
justify
slavery?
Inherent Inferiority of the Negro Race
Color of skin?
Intelligence?
Slaves were happy
"The rapid increase of numbers, is conclusive proof of the general happiness of the race ..." John C. Calhoun
"Friends & Companions vs. Owners"
Paternalistic
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun's Speech to the US Senate
February 6, 1837
Be it good or bad, [slavery] has grown up with our society and institutions, and is so interwoven with them that
to destroy
it
would be to destroy us as a people
. But let me not be understood as admitting, even by implication, that the existing relations between the two races in the slaveholding States is an evil:–far otherwise;
I hold
it
to be a good
, as it has thus far proved itself to be to both,
and will continue to prove so if not disturbed by the fell spirit of
abolition
.
I appeal to facts
. Never before has the
black race
of Central Africa, from the dawn of history to the present day,
attained a condition so civilized and so improved
, not only physically, but morally and intellectually.
A Paternalistic View of Slave Holders
A common view: Slaves were like ignorant children who needed a guiding hand from a "parent" ... master
Attitude toward a "
childlike & irresponsible people
with many endearing traits"
Slavery was ... "a curious blend ... of tyranny and benevolence, of antipathy and affection."
"Plantations were the best schools yet invented for the mass training ... of
backward people
."
Choosing children - "juvenile minds entertain no regrets for the loss of their connections"
Ulrich B. Phillips
-Life and Labor in the Old South
Phillips uses a number of offensive comments to argue for slavery.

What does he imply by the following statements?
tenant
or
employee
continuous
mental siesta
instead of requiring him to stand upon his own moral and economic legs
Let's examine how slaves have it "easy"
Primary Source Examination
Slaves Have It Easy?
"In some ways, the negro is shamefully mistreated -
mistreated through leniency
," which permits him as a
tenant
or
employee
to lean upon the whites in a continuous
mental siesta
and
sponge upon them
habitually, instead of requiring him to stand upon his own moral and economic legs."
-Life and Labor in the Old South
Paternalistic View
Wherever racial subordination exists, racism exists
Southern "paternalism" grew out of the necessity to discipline and

morally justify

a system of exploitation
... slavery rests on the principle of property in man.
Racial distinction between master & slave heightened the tension inherent in an unjust social order

Explain this statement:
Southern "paternalism" grew out of the necessity to discipline and

morally justify

a system of exploitation
... slavery rests on the principle of property in man.
What do you see?
How are the two dwellings different?
What do you think you know?
What connection do these pictures have with the institution of slavery?
Who would have lived in these houses?
What information do these primary sources offer about slavery?
Primary Source Analysis
Original documents, photos, journals, drawings from the time period. Not second hand information.

Historians use primary sources to interpret life from the time in order to make their conclusions.

History books (secondary source) are made using primary sources.
Trans Atlantic Slave Trade
Total - 12,521,336
half to Caribbean
one-third to Brazil
United States - 305,326
second largest African-American population (Brazil)
Trans Atlantic Slave Trade
Worked more like a "Triangle"
Europe sends cloth, spirit, tobacco, beads, cowrie shells, metal goods, and guns
Africa trades slaves to Europeans heading to America
Americans use slave labor to produce sugar cane, cotton (for textiles), tobacco, and other raw products
European countries buy cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses and rum from America.
Guns & Textiles
Slaves
Textiles

Remember Calhoun's Argument?

Slaves numbers are evidence with their happiness. (305K brought over to 4 million)
We know how Southerners justified slavery.

How did Africans (not the slaves) benefit from slavery?

How, then, did they get here and what was their treatment like?
What were the conditions like for the slaves?
What problems do you think the slaves dealt with?


Middle Passage
Dark, dirty, cramped, hot, chained
12% died during transport (estimated)slaves were introduced to new diseases
suffered from malnutrition long before they reached the new world
forced marches
interment at slave camps on the coast.
Slaves obtained from the Muslim dominated North African coast often proved to be
too well educated to be trusted
and
had a tendency to rebellion
Why not choose slaves from Northern Africa ... where it's much closer to Europe?
A Slave's Life
The slaves were the ones chosen because they could work long hours, and withstand new diseases.

A trip to the United States consisted of a journey that was usually 6-10 weeks long. After a breaking-in period, slaves were often put up for sale on an auction block. Slaves were considered property just like livestock and cattle, and could be bought and sold at any time the owner chose to. After a slave was bought, the owner would brand the slave with "estate marks" to identify the plantation that slave belonged to, and to identify the slave if the slave tried to run away. Used primarily by the South, slaves were forced to do jobs on plantations that no one else would do such as pick cotton. Since a master owned the slaves, they were not paid. They were often treated with a great deal of abuse, but many were able to keep a high level of spirit just the same.
Singing songs, dancing, and poetry were other ways the slaves were able to maintain their culture. There was never a large amount of time, except on Sundays, when slaves could socialize, so song and dance, poetry, and story telling usually had to be done after work had been completed for the day.
Slave Culture
Families were often broken up with a sister going to one plantation, a brother to another plantation, and cousins going to yet a different plantation. Some owners allowed weekend visits to friends and family at neighboring plantations. Slaves often went without permission if their owner did not allow any weekend visits. In attempts to keep up on events and locations of friends and family, culture and socialization were very important tools for the slaves.
Family & Socialization
Slave Religion
Religion was a very important part of life for many slaves. It was a way for the slaves to maintain a level of hope that their misery would be over some day. Worship was even encouraged by the plantation owners. Occasionally the owners would even provide a chapel for the slaves with the hope that religion would make the slaves less likely to run away. When a preacher wasn't provided for the slaves, they did their own preaching with rhythmic chanted sermons and gospel hymns.
Well may I say my life has been
One scene of sorrow and pain;
From early days I grief's have known,
And as I grew my grief's have grown.
Dangers were always in my path,
And fear of wrath and sometimes death;
While pale dejection in me reign'd
I often wept, my grief constrain'd.

When taken from my native land,
By an unjust and cruel band,
How did uncommon dread prevail!
My sighs no more I could conceal.
- Olaudah Equiano
Forms of Slave Labor
Gang Labor
Group that left early, worked together, arrived late
Sun up to sun down
80% of slaves
Task System
Easier work
Cooks, child care, house cleaning
Better fed and clothed but "on call" 24/7
Slaves' World-View Revealed in Their Stories
Slaves used song and folk tales to parallel their lives.
Verbal Art to create a continuity of their African past and slave traditions
What does that mean?
Speaking out against the slave master would have been suicidal.
Trickster Tales
Animals substituted as people w/
natural
human characteristics
Animals came to life and were human enough to be identified but exotic and vague enough to allow story tellers and listeners freedom of fear
Who's the master & who's the slave
Strong vs. weak
The weak will "outwit the strong"
A way to poke fun and deceive
Social Protest
against slavery
Psychological Release
from the inhibitions of their society
Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was neither
underground
nor a
railroad
. It got its name because its activities had to be carried out in
secret
, using darkness or disguise, and because
railway terms
were used by those involved with system to describe how it worked.
Various routes were lines, stopping places were called station
s, those who aided along the way were
conductors
and their charges were known as packages or freight. The network of routes extended through 14 Northern states and “
the promised land
” of Canada--beyond the reach of fugitive-slave hunters.

Who Helped the Fugitive Slaves?
Members of the free black community
Former slaves like Harriet Tubman
Northern abolitionists, philanthropists and church leaders
Quaker Thomas Garrett.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Highlights horrors of Slavery
Slaves are people

Approximately 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850
"
Stations
" and "
Depots
" - homes and businesses where fugitives would rest and eat
"
stationmasters
" - ran the stations
"
stockholders
" - contributed money or goods
"
conductor
" was responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next
How did the Underground Railroad Work?
"conductor," posing as a slave, would enter a plantation and then guide the runaways northward.
travel between 10 and 20 miles to a station, where they would rest and eat, hiding in barns and other out-of-the-way places. While they waited, a message would be sent to the next station to alert its stationmaster.

Vigilance committees
raised money and helped the fugitives settle into a community by helping them find jobs and providing letters of recommendation.

The Underground Railroad had many notable participants, including John Fairfield in Ohio, the son of a slaveholding family, who made many daring rescues, Levi Coffin, a Quaker who assisted more than 3,000 slaves, and Harriet Tubman, who made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom
Underground Railroad Terms
Abolitionists
Opposed Slavery
Made many attempts to get rid of slavery

Different ways to oppose slavery
Underground Railroad
Writing & Speaking
Violent
Funding
Harriet Tubman, William Still, John Parker
Conductors along the Underground Railroad

Susan B. Anthony

Spoke and wrote for the efforts to abolish slavery. She urged her audience to “make the slave’s case our own.”

Frederick Douglass
Escaped slave
published a newspaper called the North Star & Frederick Douglass Paper in which he voiced his goals for the abolishment of slavery.


William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur and Lewis Tappan

formed the American Anti-Slavery Society

Harriet Beecher Stowe
, author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin
provided the world with a vivid image of the hardships faced by slaves.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
One of the most famous slave revolts in American history came in 1831 when Nat Turner led a
bloody uprising
in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner was deeply religious, and planned his rebellion after he experienced prophetic visions ordering him to gain his freedom by force. On August 21, 1831, Turner and his accomplices killed his master’s family as they lay sleeping. From there, the small band of about

70 slaves moved from house to house, eventually killing over 50 whites with clubs, knives and muskets
.
It took a militia force to put down the rebellion, and Turner and 55 other slaves were captured and later executed by the state.

Hysteria swept through the region in the aftermath of Nat Turner’s revolt, and as many as
200 slaves were eventually killed
by white mobs and militias. The rebellion also triggered a series of oppressive restrictions on slave populations. Citing
Turner’s intelligence as a major factor in his revolt, several states would pass laws making it illegal to teach blacks to read or write.

On October 16, 1859, abolitionist
John Brown and several followers seized the United States Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry.
The actions of Brown's men brought national attention to the emotional divisions concerning slavery.

There were two keys to the success of the raid. First, the men needed to
capture the weapons and escap
e before word reached Washington, D. C. The raiders cut the telegraph lines but allowed a Baltimore and Ohio train to pass through Harpers Ferry after detaining it for five hours. When the train reached Baltimore the next day at noon, the conductor contacted authorities in Washington. Second,
Brown expected local slaves to rise up against their owners and join the raid
. Not only did this fail to happen, but townspeople began shooting at the raiders.


Armory workers discovered Brown's men in control of the building on Monday morning, October 17. Local militia companies surrounded the armory, cutting off Brown's escape routes. When Brown realized he had no way to escape, he selected nine prisoners and moved them to the armory's small fire engine house, which later became known as John Brown's Fort.

All but five were killed from fighting or executed.
John Brown became a martyr, a hero murdered for his belief that slavery should be abolished.
John Brown & Harper's Ferry
Taxes
The north (government) placed heavy taxes on imported goods from Europe so that Southerners would have to buy goods from the North. These taxes angered Southerners.



Southerners felt that the Federal government was passing laws, such as import taxes, that treated them unfairly. They believed that individual states had the right to "nullify", or overturn, any law the Federal government passed. They also believed that individual states had the right to leave the United States and form their own independent country. Most people in the North believed that the concepts of "nullification" and "states' rights" would make the United States a weaker country and were against these ideas.
States' Rights
Freedom for Slaves
The Compromise of 1850

The compromise prevented further territorial expansion of slavery while strengthening the Fugitive Slave Act, a law which compelled Northerners to seize and return escaped slaves to the South.

While the agreement succeeded in postponing outright hostilities between the North and South, it did little to address, and in some ways even reinforced, the structural disparity that divided the United States.
On January 1st of that year, President Lincoln issued the
Emancipation Proclamation
,
freeing slaves in the Confederate state
s
. The Proclamation applied neither to slaveholding border states that had remained loyal to the Union (Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri) nor to rebel states subdued by Union forces prior to its issuance. Nonetheless, its significance was profound. With the Emancipation Proclamation, the struggle between North and South transformed into a war to end slavery. Concurrent with the war's end in 1865, the
thirteenth amendment
to the U.S. Constitution was ratified.
Slavery was declared illegal in every part of the newly restored Union
. African-Americans across the nation were free.
Restore the Union
Lincoln's main goal of the Civil War
restore the Union

January 1, 1863
Goal: restore the union & end slavery

13th Amendment (December 6, 1865)
Slavery is abolished
620,000 soldiers died from combat, accident, starvation, and disease during the Civil War.
A recent study puts the number of dead as high as 850,000.
Border States
&
the Emancipation Proclamation

April 12, 1861-April 9, 1865
Full transcript