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Rising Sea Levels and Coastal Erosion
Transcript of Rising Sea Levels and Coastal Erosion
of our coastal areas. RISING SEA LEVELS
COASTAL EROSION What areas have the highest
population density? Australia's Coastal Region WHAT IS COASTAL EROSION? SO..
What effect does coastal erosion have on us? Rising Sea Levels Rising sea levels has always been a constant threat to any coastline. As the sea level rise more and more of the shoreline gets 'swallowed' up and submerged under water. Rising sea level practically amounts to a permanent loss of land.
Australia has a really high coastal situated population, this would mean a majority of the population might be affected by the rising sea level. What is causing Rising Sea Levels? Australia's coast is used for many things. Recreation, tourist attractions are among the uses. The coastline of Australia is 59,736km long 1/4 of Australia's population lives within 3 km of the sea 2/3 of Australia's population lives in coastal cities The coastal cities are the main form of production in our economy and also contributes a huge amount to the current economy How is the Coastal Region of
-Housing and other Infrastructures
-Ports and other Industrial Usage i.e. Factories
-Sewage Treatment and Disposal
-Agriculture (with inland rivers connected to nearby seas)
-Mining PROBLEMS IN AUSTRALIA'S COASTAL REGION?
RISING SEA LEVEL
IMPROPER/OVERUSE OF THE COASTAL REGION There are many processes that cause coastal erosion, which include: Coastal erosion is the loss of the coast or shoreline either temporarily or permanently depending on the type of coast Constant Wave Pounding The constant pounding of waves during high tides or storms causes the rock particles to loosen and the foundation and base of cliffs to weaken and erode which creates 'holes' at the base of the cliffs. The kinetic energy released by the waves also dislodge loose rocks. Hydraulic Pressure Air pressure gets trapped in the rocks over time through the pressure released by waves. As the air pressure builds up like a balloon, the rock would burst or break up/crumble. This air pressure also weakens the core of the rocks making it easier to be affected by other causes of erosion. Abrasion When sediments like sand, dirt or even rocks are hurled onto rocky shorelines because of waves. This is the fastest form of erosion because of the constant wearing down of the cliff faces. This also weakens or dislodges the cliff which again makes way for other eroding processes to take effect. Corrosion Corrosion is when chemical reactions causes the binding between the rocks and sediments to weaken. For example if some salt water gets into the rocks, the salt crystals could expand and shatter. The salt water is also a major factor in corroding limestone structures, this creates limestone caves/sea caves. Other Processes Rainfall Weathering and Deposition Human Interference
(i.e. building) Waste from power plants, sewage plants and factories Retreating Coastline The retreating coastline is the main cause of the problems that the local community faces and the main cause of the retreating coastline is the uneven balance between coastal erosion and deposition. Another cause is the constant rising sea level which also presents separate problem. The rising sea level will be covered later on the presentation. The Local Community? - Local ecosystems such as beaches degrading
- Increased threats of flooding and storms
- Buildings and infrastructures under threat Degradation of the Local Ecosystem The degradation of the local ecosystem is mainly caused by the deteriorating 'health' of the environment/habitat. Coastal erosion erodes the soil and therefore makes the local ecosystem more vulnerable to the impact of salt water. For example coastal forest that lies near estuaries are partially flooded for the base was eroded through coastal erosion. Once the local environment starts degrading the ecosystem is unbalanced with maybe the food chain being unbalanced since some food sources are flooded or destroyed or maybe some environments which use to be safe as a breeding place could be partially destroyed.
In public ecosystem where there are human interactions the ecosystem is already imbalanced as shown by public beaches where there are almost no signs of natural wildlife such as crabs. Areas such as rock-pools and maybe habitats such as cliff side caves were to be destroyed because of coastal erosion, more and more habitats for the natural wildlife would be destroyed. Not only that many ecosystems that are influenced by humans such as land clearing or for industrial usage are in fact important in protecting the coast and prevents coastal erosion. The usual functions performed by an ecosystem would be unbalanced so us humans are practically bringing on the problem on ourselves. Increased Threat Of Flooding With the retreating shoreline there is a higher chance of flooding since there is almost no offshore sandbars or any natural structure preventing or breaking any waves and with the eroded coastline there is a much higher chance of flooding since the shoreline is closer to the infrastructures and that with climate change/global warming in place there are more likely to be storm surges which can result in sudden storm flooding. This could already been seem in Queensland where storm surges occur often during the summer and that every year there for the past 5 years there would be some sort of flooding.
The increased rate of flooding places 300 BILLION DOLLAR OF INFRASTRUCTURE AT RISK of being destroyed or needing immediate repair because of flooding. Of the 300 billion dollars a variety of infrastructure is placed at risk from large hotel chains at popular tourist attractions to massive residential areas where thousands of people live. PROBLEMS WITH THE RISING SEA LEVEL
-Permanent loss of shoreline
-Flooding of the nearby land
-Inland bodies of water such as rivers flooding Future Problems -The continuation of neglect of the coastline can and will lead to many problems
-These problems will continue to be evident unless we can act swiftly. PROJECTION This source is a graph which projects the amount of residential buildings at risk from even a 1.1m increase in sea levels. (amount of residential buildings at risk)
(Department of Climate Change, Australia, 2009) This map shows what areas of the land would be flooded with just a 50cm increase of sea levels. The light blue shows where the water is already, the darker shade of blue shows the sea level increase. This shows just how much are towns would be inundated with such a small increase. *Graphs have been taken from ABC NEWS. This map is also a projection of the effect of rising sea levels on Sydney. Here we can see that even an 80cm increase in sea levels would cause much infrastructure to be covered. This projection is the worst case scenario. It shows a 110cm increase and shows the effects of rising sea levels on our infrastructure. scale of 1:40,000 scale of 1:40,000 scale of 1:40,000 PROBLEM SOLVING CRITERIA: Decrease the rate of the retreating coastline Prevent damage to the existing infrastructures, buildings and other man-made projects To uphold the current situation and to prevent serious degradation & Teacher : Mr JACKSON
Geography Syllabus 2013; TERM 1 Andrew LU
Zachary HUNG Chris Bonnor;
Australia in Focus;
pg 176. Infrastructures and Buildings The main threat from the constant coastal erosion is the risk of 300 Billion Dollar worth of infrastructure.
-Infrastructure situated close to the sea such as holiday beach houses would be placed at risk with the land underneath it eroding, especially seen on rocky cliffs where part of the house would be on half eroded sediment and is in danger of collapsing
-Other infrastructures would be in risk of flooding since storm bars out in the sea are eroded or not existing meaning that during storm surges there is a high chance it would actually go over the existing shore Palm Beach, Gold Coast, 1974 Taken From Gold Coast City Council Palm Beach, Gold coast, 1967 Taken From Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts BY: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE? Existing Problems -Retreating Shoreline
-Increased threats on building and infrastructure damage
-Unbalance in the coastal ecosystem SOLUTIONS Regrow the natural ecosystem or rehabilitate them so they can perform their natural functions Place sea walls out of the most densely populated coastal areas that at risk Create an artificial barrier in human influenced coastal ecosystem such as beaches to prevent any serious form of erosion A: It is generally accepted that climate change or global warming is causing the rise in sea levels. Compared to the figures from the past the sea is rising much faster then before. http://www.cmar.csiro.au/sealevel/sl_hist_last_15.html GIF SHOWING THE SEA LEVEL RISING+GRAPH What can be done?
-There is no actual prevention to the continuous rise in the sea levels
-Prevention of the consequences of the rising sea level
-Attempt to keep the current conditions as it is right now (preservation) CURRENT PROBLEM SOLVING GOVERNMENT Currently the NSW Government has introduced the Coastal Protection Act 1979 and recently the Coastal Protection Regulation 2011. These two frameworks focuses on the preservation of the current coast conditions and allows individuals to perform prevention methods to stop their own private property being affected from the problems situated around the coast.
Queensland already have their Flood Watch program and is constantly aware of the problems with sudden storm surges. They also have the Queensland Coastal plan, which aims to provie direction to the management of the coast.
As of the other states and territories no strict framework is provided in preventing serious degradation of the coast. PROPOSED PLANS As already set by the frameworks of the NSW Coastal Protection Acts individuals may place sandbags in vulnerable or eroded areas of property to prevent any further erosion. This in the short time would prevent any serious damage to infrastructures.
Local councils are allowed to perform any coastal management plans such as creating barriers preventing further erosion, creating sand dunes and other means of prevention. -Create a barrier around the whole of Australia which is around 2m tall and 1m thick, the wall would also be around 1m deep, under the ground.
-Artificially create sand bars offshore around Australia to prevent any flooding or storm surges or create sea walls
-Artifically create sand dunes and renourish the beaches for the publicly influenced ecosystem and for the less populated areas regrow the natural habitat Thank YOU Classmates and
Mr Jackson For listening And watching our PRESENTATION! Rise of population and population on the coastline Map created by Zac Hung, using information from http://chartsbin.com/view/eoo, which got their information from the Australian Bureau of Statistics