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Transcript of Pythagoras
At age 40, Pythagoras moved to Croton in southern Italy
Like Socrates, Pythagoras didn't write anything down; very little is known about his philosophies because no one wrote them down like Plato did for Socrates.
Modern Image of Pythagoras is Master Mathematician and Scientist.
his expertise on the fate of the soul after death; he thought the soul was immortal and went through a series of reincarnations
During his time, and the 150 years after his death, Pythagoras was glorified for
The Pythagorean ... having been brought up in the study of mathematics, thought that things are numbers ... and that the whole cosmos is a scale and a number. - Aristotle
Three Influential Philosophers
Travels to Egypt
Lived from 570 to 490 BCE
Ancient Greek Philosopher
By: Paola Castaneda
Resided on the island of Samos, off of the coast of modern-day Turkey, in his early life.
Often presented as a semi-divine figure and originator of all traditional Greek philosophy in early centuries BCE; many falsely used Pythagoras's name in their ideas and treaties to gain credibility and support.
his expertise in religious ritual
he had the ability to be two places at once and had a golden thigh
Founding the strict way of life that emphasized dietary restrictions, religious ritual, and rigorous self discipline.
Son of Mnesarchus and Pythias
Father was a merchant; together they traveled widely.
One of the most influential philosophers in his life was Pherekydes, his teacher.
Early education taught by Chaldaeans in Tyre and educated men in Syria.
Well educated; learned to play the lyre, poetry, and recite Homer.
Visited by Pythagoras in Miletus when he was 18 or 20
Inspired Pythagoras to focus on mathematics and astronomy.
Advised him to travel to Egypt to learn more about these subjects.
Pupil of Thales
Often lectured in Miletus about geometry, cosmology, and other ideas that would later influence Pythagoras' own ideas.
He visits many temples and partakes in many discussions with priests.
According to Porphyry, Pythagoras refused admission to all temples except Diospolis.
Invasion of Egypt
After Cambyses' victory at the Battle of Pelusium, and capturing Heliopolis and Memphis, Egyptian resistance collapsed.
Pythagoras left Babylon to return to Samos
Founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton.
Head of the society with an inner circle of followers known as Mathematikoi.
Outer circle of followers was known as Akousmatics.
Pythagoras taught them himself and they obeyed strict rules.
Pythagoras beliefs included:
At its deepest level, reality is mathematical in nature
Philosophy can be used for spiritual purification
The soul can rise to union with the divine
Certain symbols have a mystical significance
All brothers of the order should observe strict loyalty and secrecy.
Pythagoras' school practiced secrecy, making it hard for anyone to tell the difference between the works of
Pythagoras and those of his followers; it is certain that the school, as a whole made great contributions to mathematics.
Pythagoras and the Society focused on the principles of mathematics, the concept of
, the concept of geometric shapes, specifically triangles, and the abstract idea of proof.
Pythagoras studied properties we use today including:
even and odd numbers
Each number had its own personality - masculine or feminine, perfect or incomplete, beautiful or ugly. This feeling modern mathematics has deliberately eliminated, but we still find overtones of it in fiction and poetry. Ten was the very best number: it contained in itself the first four integers - one, two, three, and four [1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10] - and these written in dot notation formed a perfect triangle. - Pythagoras
Pythagoras transformed the study of geometry into a liberal education, examining the principles of the science from the beginning and probing the theorems in an immaterial and intellectual manner: he it was who discovered the theory of irrational and the construction of the cosmic figures. - Proclus 450 AD
In their ethical practices, the Pythagorean were famous for their mutual friendship, unselfishness, and honesty. - Heath
Pythagoras traveled to Delos to nurse his old teacher Pherekydes who was dying.
Croton invaded and defeated Sybaris
Pythagoras escaped to Metapontium, where he would die, according to a few authors.
Pythagorean Society continued to thrive for many years after Pythagoras' presumed death and spread to many Italian cities.