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HISTORY OF THE ATOM
Transcript of HISTORY OF THE ATOM
Democritus, Antoine Lavoisier, John Dalton, J. J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, Louis De Broglie, Erwin Schrodinger, Robert Millikan, Marie Curie, James Chadwick, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg.
1) When did they live? Where did they live?
2) What new information did they contribute to the understanding of the atom?
3) How did they find this new information? (What experiments did they do?)
4) Interesting facts – other accomplishments, personal information, famous historical events at the time,etc.
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"Atomic Structure Timeline." Atomic Structure Timeline. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
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"History of the Atomic Theory - Home." History of the Atomic Theory. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
"Interesting Facts - Ernest Rutherford." Ernest Rutherford. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
"Interesting Facts - Erwin Schrödinger." Erwin Schrödinger. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
"Interesting Facts - J.J. Thomson." J.J. Thomson. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
"Interesting Facts - Niels Bohr." Niels Bohr. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
"John Dalton - Interesting Facts." John Dalton. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
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HISTORY OF ATOM
Democritus (Greek Era)
1. Greece lived from 460 BC to 370 BC
2. Matter could not be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever, eventually the smallest possible piece would be obtained. This piece would be indivisible. He named the smallest piece of matter “atomos,” meaning “not to be cut.”
4. He was not respected as a philosopher.
1. Born 6 September 1766 Eaglesfield, Cumberland, England. Died 27 July 1844 (aged 77) Manchester, England.
2. All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties.
Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
Atoms can be neither created nor destroyed.
3. Experimental observations.
4. Was never married and was color blind along with his brother.
1. Born 30 August 1871 Brightwater, New Zealand. Died 19 October 1937 (aged 66) Cambridge, England, UK.
2. Rutherford model, nucleolus and low mass electrons.
3. Gold foil experiment, shoot alpha particles into gold foil later to find the had been reflected.
4. On his birth certificate, his named was misspelled, so technically his real name is "Earnest" Rutherford
Louis De Broglie
1. Born 15 August 1892 Dieppe, France. Died 19 March 1987 (aged 94) Louveciennes, France.
2. His ideas were a basis for developing the wave mechanics theory.
3. Ideas... no experimental data to support
4. He was a duke.
1. Born Robert Andrews Millikan March 22, 1868 Morrison, Illinois, U.S. Died December 19, 1953 (aged 85).
2. Found the charge of an electron.
3. Oil drop experiment determined the charge (e=1.602 x 10 -19 coulomb) and the mass (m = 9.11 x 10 -28 gram) of an electron.
4. Millikan was devoutly religious and wrote considerably about the importance of faith and religion in his autobiography
1. Born 20 October 1891 Bollington, Cheshire, England. Died 24 July 1974 (aged 82) Cambridge, England.
2. Proved the neutron
3. Reused Irene (Marie Curie's daughter) and Frederic Joliot-Curie experiments to find neutrons by mass and velocity
4. He was a prisoner of war from 1913-1918 in Germany.
1. Born 14 March 1879 Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire. Died 18 April 1955 (aged 76) Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
2. Contributed to many existing theories and created his own from them as well. But most famous for the law of mass-energy equivalence, E=MC2.
3. Mathematics, reasoning, deriving from preexisting laws.
4. He had he way of getting ladies, cousins.
1. Born Werner Karl Heisenberg 5 December 1901 Würzburg, Bavaria, German Empire. Died 1 February 1976 (aged 74) Munich, Bavaria, West Germany.
2. Matrix mechanics.
3. Using knowledge and mathematical reasoning
4. After the birth of his fraternal twins, Wolfgang Pauli sent his congratulations to Werner on his "pair creation" making a play on words about the process of pair production in particle phyisics which Pauli worked on
1. Born Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck April 23, 1858 Kiel, Duchy of Holstein. Died October 4, 1947 (aged 89) Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.
2. used the idea of quanta (discrete units of energy) to explain hot glowing matter.
4. Planck’s work on the quantum theory was published in the Annalen der Physik and his work is summarized in 2 books Thermodynamik (Thermodynamics) and Theorie der Wärmestrahlung (Theory of heat radiation).
1. Born Maria Salomea Skłodowska 7 November 1867 Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland, then part of Russian Empire. Died 4 July 1934 (aged 66) Passy, Haute-Savoie, France
2. Separated 1/10g of radium chloride. Defined atomic mass of radium as 225
3. studied radioactivity.
4. First woman professor of General physics.
1. Born Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger 12 August 1887 Vienna, Austria-Hungary. Died 4 January 1961 (aged 73) Vienna, Austria.
2. He proposed that electrons are arranged in concentric circular orbits around the nucleus. This model is patterned on the solar system and is known as the planetary model.
3. Schrödinger used mathematical equations to describe the likelihood of finding an electron in a certain position.
4. In 1933, Schrödinger left Austria. Jews were being persecuted that time, so, even though Schrodinger himself wasn't Jewish, he could no longer live in a country where people were being persecuted for their religion.
1. Born Niels Henrik David Bohr 7 October 1885 Copenhagen, Denmark. Died 18 November 1962 (aged 77) Copenhagen, Denmark.
2. Provided a stepping stone for old quantum theory and most importantly suggested orbits, energy levels, to later create the Bohr model.
3. He adapted Rutherford's nuclear structure to Max Planck'squantum theory and so created his Bohr model of the atom.
4. During the debate about Quantum Theory with Albert Einstein, Einstein said "God does not play dice." Bohr replied by saying "Einstein, stop telling God what to do!
1. Born 18 December 1856 Manchester, England. Died 30 August 1940 (aged 83) Cambridge, England.
2. Thomson’s atomic theory suggested that the atom is not indivisible as it was of smaller pieces – electrons and protons.
3. Experimenting with properties of cathode ray.
4. He enrolled in Trinity college at the age of fourteen!
1. Born 26 August 1743 Paris, France. Died 8 May 1794 (aged 50) Paris, France.
2. Law of conservation of mass
3. Clax of mercury was equivalent to that of “oxygen” and mercury put together.
4. He was suspected of treason during the French Revolution.