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Copy of What is Matter?

Describing Matter, properties, mass, volume, and density
by

Brandon Collins

on 24 August 2016

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Transcript of Copy of What is Matter?

Matter
What is it, and why does it matter?
What is matter?
Matter is anything with volume and mass. Since everything has volume and mass, everything has matter. We'll get to what volume and mass is later!
Properties
properties are characteristics of things. Properties can be color, odor, size, texture, or hardness. Anything that it has and can be described is a property.
Mass
General Properties are Mass, Weight Volume and Density.. but what are these terms?
For example, some properties of a red ink pen would be red, plastic, metal (the spring), and hard.
Mass is how much stuff is inside an object. No matter where you are, mass always stays the same unless you take away or add more to the object
So say you're going to the moon. If you have a mass of 5 kg on earth, then your mass will remain at 5kg on the moon
It's often said mass is another measure of what's called inertia. Inertia is basically the force needed to push something in the other direction. The larger the mass, the more force would be needed
So if you're trying to push an elephant with a mass of 11,000 kg it would take a LOT inertia to push it out of the way
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter cannot be created, nor destoryed. But, It can be changed from different forms. When it does this, the mass does not change. This is because atoms can't be terminated in a chemical reaction
Weight
Weight is a measurement of the force of gravity, pulling it down. When people ask you how much you weigh, they're actually asking for your mass. Weight is actually measured in newtons.
Unlike mass, weight is not constant. So, say you're going to the moon again! If you weigh 50N (newtons) your weight on the moon would be about 8N. This is because the force of gravity is more on Earth than it is on the moon.
On earth, our mass and weight are about the same, that's why we get the two confused.
Volume
Or the properties of a math book would be paper, ink, hard, and dense
Even if you go to Mars and you have a mass of 5 kg it will still remain at 5kg
While if you're trying to push a small bird it wouldn't take much inertia, because it's so small
Water turning to ice is a liquid turning to a solid. Even though the form is different, the matter is the same
Volume is the amount of space something takes up. it's measured in liters (L), millileters (mL), or cubic centemeters.
If an object has measureable sides, multiply length, width, and height to find its volume.
so if you want to find the volume of the box set of the best book series in the entire universe, just multiply the length, width, and height.
Multiply the measurements and you'd get 36,225cm
if you want to find the volume of an irregular object that does not have measureable sides, drop it in a graduated cylinder of water and measure the increase in mL or L
So if you drop a marble into a graduated cylinder with liquid filled up to 60 mL
and the liquid goes up 67. That would mean the marble has a volume of 7mL
Density
Density is how much mass in an object with a certain amount of volume. All matter has density, so density allows you to compare different types of matter. It also lets you identify substances and find differences between that and other substances. It tells you how compacted molecules are.
You can find density by using a certain formula
D= Density
M=Mass
V= Volume
If you have a binder that has a mass of 2 grams and a volume of 240cm
3
Diving those you'd get a density of 0.00833g/cm
3
If you knew the density and volume then you'd need to figure out the mass. Do this by using the same formula
D=
m
_
v
A notebook has a volume of48cm and a density of 0.0625, what is the mass? By multiplying you'd find the mass to be 3.
3
!
3
Physical Properties
matter can be in the form of a gas, liquid or a solid. When it changes from one state to another, it's can be called melting, freezing, vaporization, evaporation, condensation, deposition, sublimation.
Melting
Melting is when a solid turns to a liquid when thermal energy is added. When the thermal energy is added, particles spread apart.
ICe is a solid. When thermal energy is added, it turns to water which is liquid.
Freezing
Freezing is the opposite of melting. When thermal energy is taken away, a liquid can turn into a solid.
If you get the same water and take away thermal energy, it will turn back into a solid, or ice.
Vaporization
vaporization is when a liquid turns into a gas, inside the liquid.
The bubbles in the pot is a form of vaporization. The steam coming up is evaporation.
Evaporation
Evaporation is similar to vaporization, but the liquid changes to a gas at the surface of the liquid.
Condensation
Condensation is the change from a gas to a liquid
On a cold bottle, the water on the plastic is a form of condensation.
Sublimation
Sublimation is when a solid turns into a gas without going into the liquid state.
When you freeze carbon dioxide, you get dry ice; an example of deposition. When the solid turns back into a gas, it's sublimation
Deposition
Depostion is the a gas turning into a solid.
Types of Matter
Matter is classified into mixtures, solutions, elements, and compounds
Mixtures
A mixtures is when two or more substances are mixed together but not chemically combined. When they're mixed, the substances keep their own identities. Nothing new is created, but they can change their physical appearance
There are two types of mixtures.
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
Homogeneous mixtures look like it's the same thing throughout the mixture. Particles look like they're really small.
Orange juice without pulp is a homogeneous mixture.
Heterogeneous mixtures don't look the same throughout. It's least mixed, you can see the different substances, and it's fairly easy to separate.
Solutions
Solutions are a type of mixture where one substance is dissolved in another. All solutions are homogeneous mixtures. A solution is ALWAYS something dissolved in something else.
To make a solution you have to have 3 things. A solute, a solvent, and solubility.
Solubility is the ability for something to dissolve in a liquid. Solutes are what is being dissolved and solvent is what it's being dissolved in.
In Iced tea, the tea is the solvent while the sugar/ sweetener is the solute.
Metal solutions are alloys. An alloy is a solid dissolved in a solid.
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.
Elements
An element is a pure substance made of atoms. Atoms are what all matter is made of. Atoms of the same element look the same. Different atoms make different elements.
The copper atom
looks
different
than
the zinc atom
Compounds
Compounds are made up of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined. They can be broken down into less complex things by heating them or using electrical energy. Compounds are made of molecules, which are made of 2 or more atoms.
Water is hydrogen and oxygen. 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen. (H2O)
vegetable soup is heterogeneous
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