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TOK in Chemistry

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Samantha Tong

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of TOK in Chemistry

THE STORY OF THE ATOM: OBSERVATION & HYPOTHESIS
Scientific Theory
STEP 3: THEORY (based on evidence but can be improved)

Thomson Plum Pudding
-British physicist, discovered the electron, imagined the atom as below:

Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment:
Bombarded alpha particles at gold foil to locate particles
With the plum pudding model in mind, Rutherford expected very minimal alpha particle deflection
In fact, this was not the truth and he found out the nucleus is concentrated


Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

The visual concept of the atom now appeared as an electron "cloud" which surrounds a nucleus. From this stemmed the idea of orbitals

Other example of laws:
Pauli exclusion principle
Laws of Thermal dynamics
Avogadro's Gas laws
Hess' Law

SCIENTIFIC PREDICTIONS
Bond Enthalpies
Standard Enthalpy of Formation & Combustion
Born-Haber Model
Quantitative Chemistry (moles, theoretical yield)
Predicting Polarity (Electronegativity)

Sense perception & Reasoning
In chemistry


STEP 1: OBSERVATION
Thales of Miletus discovered that a piece of amber, after rubbing it with fur, attracts bits of hair and feathers and other light objects.

STEP 2:
In 460 B.C, a Greek philosopher, Democritus, aware of this special "force", hypothesized about the concept of the atom. This was based on observation and basic logical deduction:
If you break a piece of matter in half, and then break it in half again, how many breaks will you have to make before you can break it no further?
Scientific Laws
SCIENTIFIC MODELS
Conceptual Representations
The Bohr Model
After further experiments and reasoning derived from concepts about the emission spectrum,
Other Examples
Lewis Structure
Aufbau Principle

Further Examples of scientific theories:
VSEPR Theory
Collision Theory
Standard model
Schrodinger equation
Impact of Expectations
Now that we've discovered the atom ....
IMPORTANT WOKS
Sense Perception- to observe experiments
Imagination - to explain concepts we can't see (atoms)
Reasoning- to come to a conclusion
Full transcript