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Monthly Ordinances

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by

Ann Dickinson

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of Monthly Ordinances

The Cycle of the Year
The Monthly Ordinances
The Second Month
of
Spring

The Third Month
of
Spring

The First Month
of
Summer

The Second Month of
Summer

The Third Month
of
Summer

The First Month
of
Spring


The Heavens
Sun is in
Shi
Dusk star is
Can
Dawn Star is
Wei
Days
jia
yi
and its Ordinances
Divine Ruler is
Taihao
Attending Spirit is
Goumang
Its creatures are the scaly
Its musical note is
jiao
Its pitch-tube is the
Taicu
Its number is
8
Its taste is sour
Its smell is rank
Its sacrifice is that at the door
Of the parts of the sacrificial animal the spleen has the foremost place
East Winds dissipate the cold
Creatures that have been torpid during the winter begin to move
The fishes rise up to the ice
Otters sacrifice fish
The wild geese make their appearance
The Son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Qingyang Fane;

rides in the carriage with the phœnix bells,

drawn by the azure-dragon horses,
and carrying the green flag;


wears green robes, and hangs pieces of green jade on his cap and at his girdle pendant.

He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, to resemble the shooting forth of plants
In this month there takes place the inauguration of spring. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand Recorder informs the Son of Heaven, saying, 'On such and such a day is the inauguration of the spring.





The energies of the season are fully seen in wood.

On this the Son of Heaven devotes himself to self-purification, and on the day he leads in person the Three Dukes, his Nine High Ministers, the Feudal Lords who are at court, and his Great Officers, to meet the spring in the eastern suburb
He charges his assistants to disseminate lessons of virtue, and

harmonize the governmental orders,

to give effect to the expressions of his satisfaction and

bestow his favors;

down to the millions of the people.

Those expressions and gifts thereupon proceed, every one in proper degree and direction
The Son of Heaven on the first day prays to the High God for a good year; and afterwards, the day of the first conjunction of the sun and moon having been chosen, with the handle and share of the plough in the carriage, placed between the man- at-arms who is its third occupant and the driver, he conducts his Three Dukes, his Nine High Ministers, the Feudal Lords and his Great Officers, all with their own hands to plough the God’s fields. The Son of Heaven turns up three furrows, each of Dukes five, and the other ministers and feudal princes nine. When they return, he takes in his hand a cup in the great chamber, all the others being in attendance on him and the Great officers, and says, 'Drink this cup of comfort after your toil.'
In this month the vapors of heaven descend and those of the earth ascend. Heaven and earth are in harmonious co-operation. All plants bud and grow
The king gives orders to set forward the business of agriculture. The inspectors of the fields are ordered to reside in the lands having an eastward exposure, and see that all repair the marches and divisions of the o-round, and mark out clearly the paths and ditches. They must skilfully survey the mounds and rising grounds, the slopes and defiles, the plains and marshes, determining what the different lands are suitable for, and where the different grains will grow best. They must thus instruct and lead on the people, themselves also engaging in the tasks. The business of the fields being thus ordered, the guiding line is first put in requisition, and the husbandry is carried on without error
In this month orders are given to the
Director of Music to enter the college,
and practice the dances with his pupils
The canons of sacrifice are examined and set forth,
and orders are given to sacrifice to the hills and forests, the streams and meres, care being taken not to use any female sacrificial animals
No change in the ways of heaven is allowed; nor any extinction of the principles of earth; nor any confounding of the bonds of men
If the proceedings proper to
winter
were carried out, pools of water would produce their destructive effects, snow and frost would prove very injurious, and the first sown seeds would not enter the ground
Prohibitions are issued against cutting down trees
Nests should not be thrown down; unformed insects should not be killed, nor creatures in the womb, nor very young creatures, nor birds just taking to the wing, nor fawns, nor should eggs be destroyed
No congregating of multitudes should be allowed, and no setting about the rearing of fortifications and walls
Skeletons should be covered up,
and bones with the flesh attached to them buried
In this month no warlike operations should be undertaken; the undertaking of such is sure to be followed by calamities from Heaven. The not undertaking warlike operations means that they should not commence on our side
From the “Monthly Ordinances,” a chapter in the Book of Rites, following the translation of James Legge with notes by James Legge. From The Sacred Books of China vol. 4, THE YÜEH LING OR PROCEEDINGS OF GOVERNMENT IN THE DIFFERENT MONTHS
孟春之月。日在營室。昏參中。旦尾中。


He also orders the Grand Recorder to guard the statutes and maintain the laws, and especially to observe the motions in the heavens of the sun and moon, and of the zodiacal stars in which the conjunctions of these bodies take place, so that there should be no error as to where they rest and what they pass over; that there should be no failure in the record of all these things, according to the regular practice of early times.
http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/1261371
Loni Stark, http://www.starkinsider.com/2009/05/baby-bird-arrives-eggs.html
The sun is in Khwei
The star culminating at dusk is Hû
The star culminating at dawn is Kien-hsing
The Heavens
kia
Days
yi
Divine ruler is Thâi Hâo
Attending spirit is Kâu-mang
Its creatures are the scaly
Its musical note is Kio
Its pitch-tube is the Kiâ Kung
Its number is
8
Its taste is sour
Its smell is rank
Its sacrifice is that at the door


Of the parts of the victim
the spleen has the foremost place
The rain begins to fall
The peach tree begins to blossom
The oriole sings
Hawks are transformed into doves
The son of Heaven occupies the Khing Yang Grand Fane;

rides in the carriage with the phœnix bells,

drawn by the azure dragon-horses, and bearing the green flag.

He is dressed in the green robes, and wears the azure gems.

He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, to resemble the bursting forth of nature.
In this month, they keep both the young buds and those more advanced from being disturbed;



they nourish both the young animals and those not fully grown; they especially watch over all orphans.
The fortunate day is chosen, and orders are given to the people to sacrifice at their altars to the spirits of the ground
Orders are given to the proper officers to examine the prisons; to remove fetters and handcuffs; that there shall be no unregulated infliction of the bastinado; and that efforts shall be made to stop criminal actions and litigations
In this month the swallow makes its appearance. On the day of its arrival, the son of Heaven sacrifices to the first match-maker with a bull, a ram, and a boar. He goes to do so in person, with his queen and help-mates, attended by his nine ladies of honor.

Peculiar courtesy is shown to those whom he has lately approached. Bow-cases have been brought, and a bow and arrows are given to each before the altar of the first match-maker.
In this month day and night are equal. Thunder utters its voice, and the lightning begins to be seen.











Insects in their burrows are all in motion, opening their doors and beginning to come forth.


Three days before the thunder, a bell with a wooden tongue is sounded, to give notice to all the people.





'The thunder,' it is said, 'is about to utter its voice. If any of you be not careful of your behaviour, you shall bring forth children incomplete; there are sure to be evils and calamities.'
At the equinox they make uniform the measures of length and capacity;

the weight Of 30 catties,
the steelyard,
and the weight of 120 catties.




They correct the peck and bushel,
the steelyard weights and the bushel-scraper
In this month few of the husbandmen remain in their houses in the towns.


They repair, however, their gates and doors, both of wood and wattles; and put their sleeping apartments and temples all in good repair.




No great labours, which would interfere with the work of husbandry, should be undertaken
In this month the fishermen should not let the streams and meres run dry,


nor drain off all the water from the dams and ponds, in order to catch all the fish,


nor should the hunters fire the hills and forests
The son of Heaven at this time offers a lamb to the ruler of cold, and opens the reservoirs of ice.



Before using it generally, they offer some in their principal apartment or in the ancestral temple
On the first ting day orders are given to the chief director of Music to exhibit the civil dances and unfold the offerings of vegetables to the inventor of music.


The son of Heaven, at the head of the three ducal ministers, his nine high ministers, the feudal princes at court, and his Great officers, goes in person to see the ceremony.


On the second ting day orders are given again to the same chief to enter the college, and practise music with his pupils.
In this month at the smaller services of supplication they do not use victims.



They use offerings of jade, square and round, and instead of victims skins and pieces of silk
If in this second month of
spring


the governmental proceedings proper to
autumn
were observed, there would be great floods, in the states; cold airs would be constantly coming; and plundering attacks would be frequent.


If those of
winter
were observed, the warm and genial airs would be insufficient; the wheat would not ripen; and raids and strifes would be rife among the people.



If those of
summer
were observed, there would be great droughts among the people; the hot airs would come too early; and caterpillars and other insects would harm the grain.
http://www.inkdancechinesepaintings.com/chinese-peach-blossom-paintings.html
By Steven Struyck
http://ibc.lynxeds.com/photo/black-naped-oriole-oriolus-chinensis/oriole-calling-loud-clear

http://www.flowerpicturegallery.com/v/Forsythia-flowers-pictures-gallery/Forsythia+buds+picture.PNG.html
http://cityrag.com/2012/06/22-baby-birds-of-prey/baby-golden-eagle/
http://www.chinesedragon.org.uk/the_imperial_chinese_dragon_legend_or_reality.htm
and that culminating at dawn Khien-niû
Its days are kiâ and yî
Its divine ruler is Thâi Hâo



The attending spirit is Kâu-mang.
Its creatures are the scaly.
Its musical note is the Kio
Its number is eight
Its sacrifice is that at the door, and of the parts of the victim the spleen has the foremost place
The Elaeococca begins to flower
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Khing Yang Fane; rides in the carriage with the phœnix bells, drawn by the azure dragon-horses, and bearing the green flag. He is dressed in the green robes, and wears the azure gems. He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, to resemble the bursting forth of nature
In this month the son of Heaven presents robes yellow as the young leaves of the mulberry tree to the ancient divine ruler (and his queen)
Orders are given to the officer in charge of the boats to turn a boat bottom up. Five times he does so, and five times he turns it back again, after which he reports that it is ready for the son of Heaven, who Orders are given to the officer in charge of the boats to turn a boat bottom up. Five times he does so, and five times he turns it back again, after which he reports that it is ready for the son of Heaven, who then gets into it for the first time this spring. He offers a snouted sturgeon which he has caught in the rear apartment of the ancestral temple, and also prays that the wheat may yield its produce
In this month the influences of life and growth are fully developed; and the warm and genial airs diffuse themselves. The crooked shoots are all put forth, and the buds are unfolded. Things do not admit of being restrained.
The son of Heaven spreads his goodness abroad, and carries out his kindly promptings. He gives orders to the proper officers to distribute from his granaries and vaults, giving their contents to the poor and friendless, and to relieve the needy and destitute; and to open his treasuries and storehouses, and to send abroad through all the nation the silks and other articles for presents, thus stimulating the princes of states to encourage the resort to them of famous scholars and show courtesy to men of ability and virtue.
In this month, he charges the superintendents of works, saying, 'The rains of the season will be coming down, and the waters beneath will be swelling up. Go in order over the states and visit the towns, inspecting everywhere the low and level grounds.
The nets used in hunting animals and birds,


In this month orders are given to the foresters throughout the country not to allow the cutting down of the mulberry trees and silk-worm oaks. About these the cooing doves clap their wings, and the crested birds light on them .
In this month orders are given to the chiefs of works, to charge the workmen of their various departments to inspect the materials in the five storehouses:--those of iron and other metals; of skins and hides and sinews; of horn and ivory; of feathers, arrows and wood for bows; and of grease, glue, cinnabar, and varnish. They are to see that all these things be good. The workmen then labour at their several tasks.
In the end of this month a fortunate day is chosen for a grand concert of music. The son of Heaven, at the head of the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, the feudal princes at court, and his great officers, goes in person to witness it.
In this month they collect the large, heavy bulls, and fiery stallions, and send them forth to the females in the pasture grounds.

They number and make a list of the animals fit for victims, with the foals and calves.
Orders are given for the ceremonies against pestilence throughout the city; at the nine gates also animals are torn in pieces in deprecation of the danger: to secure the full development of the healthy airs of the spring.
If, in this last month of
spring
,

the governmental proceedings proper to
winter
were observed, cold airs would constantly be prevailing; all plants and trees would decay; and in the states there would be great terrors.
Its days are ping and ting
Its divine ruler is Yen Tî
Its musical note is Kia
Its number is seven
Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.
The green frogs croak

Earth-worms come forth

The royal melons grow

The sow-thistle is in seed
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Ming Thang Grand Fane; rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation jade.
Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of summer. The energies of the season are most fully seen in fire.'

On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-purification; and on the day, at the head of the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, and his Great officers, he proceeds to meet the summer in the southern suburbs.

On their return, rewards are distributed.

He grants to the feudal princes an increase of territory.

Congratulations and gifts proceed, and all are joyful and pleased.
Orders are also given to the chief master of music

to teach the practice of ceremonies and music together.
Orders are given to the Grand Peace-maintainer to recommend men of eminence, allow the worthy and good to have free course and bring forward the tall and large.
In this month what is long should be encouraged to grow longer,
and what is high to grow higher.




In this month the son of Heaven begins to wear thin dolichos cloth.
Orders are given to the foresters throughout the country to go forth over the fields and plains, and, for the son of Heaven, to encourage the husbandmen, and stimulate them to work, and not let the season slip by unimproved.
Orders are also given to the minister of Instruction to travel in order through the districts to the borders, charging the husbandmen to work vigorously, and not to rest in the towns.
In this month they chase away wild animals to prevent them from doing harm to any of the growing grain; but they should not have a great hunting.
When the husbandmen present the first-fruits of their wheat, the son of Heaven tastes it along with some pork, first offering a portion in the apartment behind the hall of the ancestral temple.
In this month they collect and store up the various medicinal herbs. Delicate herbs now die; it is the harvest time even of the wheat.
When the work with the silk-worms is over, the queen presents her cocoons; and the tithe-tax of cocoons generally is collected, according to the number of mulberry trees;
In this month the son of Heaven entertains his ministers and princes with strong drink and with much observance of ceremony and with music
If, in this first month of
summer
The sun is in the eastern Zing

The constellation culminating at dusk being Khang,

and that culminating at dawn is Wei
Its days are ping and ting
Its creatures are the feathered
Its musical note is Kih
Its number is seven
Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place
The period of slighter heat arrives;
They encourage the continued growth of what is strong and beautiful.
In this month orders are given to the music-masters to put in repair the hand-drums, smaller drums, and large drums; to adjust the lutes, large and small, the double flutes, and the pan-pipes;
Orders are given to the proper officers to pray for the people and offer sacrifice to the spirits of the hills, streams, and all springs.
The husbandmen present the first-fruits of their millet;



The people are forbidden to cut down the indigo plant to use it in dyeing
Or to burn wood for charcoal, or to bleach cloth in the sun.
The gates of cities and villages should not be shut, nor should vexatious inquiries be instituted at the barrier gates or in the markets.
Leniency should be shown to prisoners charged even with great crimes, and their allowance of food be increased.
Impregnated mares are collected in herds by themselves, and the fiery stallions are tied up.

The rules for the rearing of horses are given out.
The influences in nature of darkness and decay and those of brightness and growth struggle together; the tendencies to death and life are divided.
Deer shed their horns
In this month fires should not be lighted out of doors in the southern regions of the country.
People may live in buildings high and bright. They may enjoy distant prospects. They may ascend hills and heights. They may occupy towers and lofty pavilions.
If, in the second month of
summer

Its days are ping and ting.
Its musical note is Kih
Its number is seven
Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.
Gentle winds begin to blow.
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Ming Thang Fane; rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation gems.
Orders are given to the master of the Fishermen to attack the alligator, to take the gavial, to present the tortoise, and to take the great turtle
Orders are given to the superintendent of the Meres to collect and send in the rushes available for use.
In this month orders are given to the four inspectors to make a great collection over all the districts of the different kinds of fodder to nourish the sacrificial victims;

and to require all the people to do their utmost towards this end;-to supply what is necessary for the worship of God who dwells in the great Heaven, and for the spirits of the famous hills, great streams, and four quarters, and for the sacrifices to the Intelligences of the ancestral temple,

and at the altars to the spirits of the land and grain;

that prayer may be made for blessing to the people.
In this month orders are given by the officers of women's work, on the subject of dyeing. They are to see that the white and black, the black and green, the green and carnation, the carnation and white be all according to the ancient rules, without error or change; and that their black, yellow, azure, and carnation be all genuine and good, without any presumptuous attempts at imposition.

These furnish the materials for the robes used at the sacrifices in the suburbs and the ancestral temple; for flags and their ornaments; and for marking the different degrees of rank as high or low.
In this month the trees are luxuriant; and orders are given to the foresters to go among the hills and examine the trees, and see that the people do not cut any down or lop their branches
There should not be any work in earth undertaken; nor any assembling of the princes of the states; nor any military movements, causing general excitement.

There should be no undertaking of great affairs, which will disturb the nourishing growth that is proceeding, nor any issuing of orders to be hereafter carried into effect.

All these things will interfere with the business of husbandry, which is specially dear to the Spirits . The floods are now great and overflow the roads; husbandry dear to the Spirits has to take in hand its various tasks.

The curse of Heaven will come on the undertaking of great affairs at this time.
In this month the ground lies steaming and wet beneath the heats, for great rains are continually coming.

They burn the grass lying cut upon the ground and bring the water over it.

This is as effectual to kill the roots as hot water would be; and the grass thus serves to manure the fields of grain and hemp, and to fatten the ground which has been but just marked out for cultivation.
If, in the last month of
summer
,
The First Month
of
Autumn

The sun is in Yî


The constellation culminating at dusk being Kien-hsing,


and that culminating at dawn is Pî
Its days are kang and hsin
Its divine ruler is Shâo Hâo
Its creatures are the hairy
Its musical note is Shang
Its number is nine.
Its sacrifice is that at the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.
Cool winds come;
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Zung-kang Fane; rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flag. He is clothed in the white robes, and wears the white jade.
In this month there takes place the inauguration of autumn. Three days before the ceremony the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying,

'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of the autumn. The character of the season is fully seen in metal.'

On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-adjustment;

and on the day he leads in person the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, the princes of states at court, and his Great officers, to meet the autumn in the western suburb, and on their return he rewards the general-in-chief, and the military officers in the court.
The son of Heaven also orders the leaders and commanders to choose men and sharpen weapons, to select and exercise those of distinguished merit, and to give their entire trust only to men whose services have been proved; thereby to correct all unrighteousness.
In this month orders are given to the proper officers

In this month the husbandmen present their grain. The son of Heaven tastes it, while still new, first offering some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple.

to finish the embankments and dykes;

to look to the dams and fillings up in preparation for the floods, and also

to refit all houses;

to strengthen walls and enclosures;

and to repair city and suburban walls.
In this month there should be no investing of princes, and no appointment of great ministers.
If, in this first month of
autumn
,
The Second Month
of
Autumn

The sun is in Kio


The constellation culminating at dusk is Khien-niû


and that culminating at dawn is Dze-hsî
Its days are kang and hsin
Its creatures are the hairy
Its musical note is Shang
Its number is nine
Sudden and violent winds come.
The son of Heaven occupies the Zung-kang Grand Fane; rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flag.
In this month they take especial care of the
decaying and old;
Orders are given to the superintendent of robes to have ready the upper and lower dresses with their various ornaments. For the figures and embroidery on them there are fixed patterns. Their size, length, and dimensions must all be according to the old examples. For the caps and girdles also there are regular rules.
Orders are given to the proper officers to revise with strict accuracy the laws about the various punishments.

Beheading and the other capital executions must be according to the crimes without excess or defect.

Excess or defect out of such proportion will bring on itself the judgment of Heaven.
In this month orders are given to the officers of slaughter and prayer to go round among the victims for sacrifice, seeing that they are entire and complete, examining their fodder and grain, inspecting their condition as fat or thin, and judging of their looks.
The son of Heaven performs the ceremonies against pestilence, to secure development for the healthy airs of autumn.
He eats the hemp-seed which is now presented along with dog's flesh,

first offering some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple.
In this month it is allowable to rear city and suburban walls, to establish cities and towns,
Orders are given to the proper officers to be urgent with the people, and to finish receiving their contributions and storing them. They should do their best to accumulate large stores of vegetables and other things.


In this month day and night are equal.
At the equinox, they make uniform the measures of length and capacity;
In this month they regulate and reduce the charges at the frontier gates and in the markets, to encourage the resort of both regular and travelling traders, and the receipt of goods and money; for the convenience of the business of the people.
In commencing great undertakings, there should be no opposition to the great periods for them as defined by the motion of the sun. They must be conformed to the times , and particular attention paid to the nature of each.
the proceedings proper to
spring
were observed, the autumnal rains would not fall; plants and trees would blossom; and in the states there would be alarms.
The Third Month
of
Autumn

Its days are kang and hsin
Its creatures are the hairy
Its musical note is Shang
Its number is nine
The wild geese come, and abide like guests.

The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Zung-kang Fane; rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flags; is dressed in the white robes, and wears the white jade.
In this month the orders are renewed and
strictly enjoined, charging the various, officers to see that noble and mean all exert themselves in the work of ingathering, in harmony with the storing of heaven and earth.
Orders are also given to the chief minister, after the fruits of husbandry have all been gathered in, to take in hand the registers of the produce of the different grains from all the country,
In this month the hoar-frost begins to fall; and all labours cease for a season
Orders are given to the proper officers, saying, 'The cold airs are all coming, and the people will not be able to endure them. Let all enter within their houses for a time.'
On the first ting day orders are given to the chief Director of music to enter the college, and to practise with his pupils on the wind instruments.
In this month an announcement is made to the son of Heaven that the victims for the great sacrifice to God, and the autumnal sacrifice in the ancestral temple are fit and ready.
The princes of the states are assembled, and orders given to the officers of the various districts in the royal domain.
In this month the son of Heaven, by means of hunting, teaches how to use the five weapons of war, and the rules for the management of horses.
Orders are given to the charioteers and the seven classes of grooms to see to the yoking of the several teams, to set up in the carriages the flags and various banners, to assign the carriages according to the rank of those who were to occupy them, and to arrange and set up the screens outside the royal tent.
Then the son of Heaven, in his martial ornaments, with his bow in one hand, and the arrows under the armpit of the other, proceeds to hunt.
In this month the plants and trees become yellow and their leaves fall, on which the branches are cut down to make charcoal.
Insects in their burrows all try to push deeper, and from within plaster up the entrances.
In this month the son of Heaven eats dog's flesh and rice, first presenting some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple.
If, in this last month of
autumn
The First Month
of
Winter

The sun is in Wei



The constellation culminating at dusk being Wei




The constellation culminating at dawn is
Khih-hsing
Its days are the zan and kwei
Its divine ruler is Kwan-hsü
Its creatures are the shell-covered
Its musical note is Yu
Its number is six
Its sacrifice is that at the altar of the path, and
among the parts of the victim the kidneys have the foremost place
Water begins to congeal. The earth begins to be penetrated by the cold.
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Hsüan Thang Fane; rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag; is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured jade.
In this month there takes place the inauguration of winter. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying,
In this month orders are given to the Grand recorder to smear with blood the tortoise-shells and divining stalks, and by interpreting the indications of the former and examining the figures formed by the latter, to determine the good and evil of their intimations.
In this month the son of Heaven sets the example of wearing furs.
Orders are issued to the proper officers in the words:
Orders are given to all the officers to cover up carefully
the stores of their departments.

The city and suburban walls are put in good repair;
the gates of towns and villages are looked after;
bolts and nuts are put to rights;
locks and keys are carefully attended to;
the field-boundaries are strengthened;
the frontiers are well secured;
important defiles are thoroughly defended;
passes and bridges are carefully seen after;
and narrow ways and cross-paths are shut up.
The rules for mourning are revised; the distinctions of the upper and lower garments are defined; the thickness of the inner and outer coffins is decided on; with the size, height and other dimensions of graves.
In this month orders are given to the chief Director of works to prepare a memorial
on the work of the artificers;
In this month there is the great festivity when they drink together, and each of the stands bears half its animal roasted.
The son of Heaven prays for a blessing on the coming year to the Honoured ones of heaven;
The son of Heaven orders his leaders and commanders to give instruction on military operations, and to exercise the soldiers in archery and chariot-driving, and in trials of strength.
In this month orders are given to the superintendent of waters and the master of fishermen to collect the revenues from rivers, springs, ponds, and meres,
If, in the first month of
winter
,
The Second Month
of
Winter

The sun is in Tâu


The constellation culminating at dusk being the eastern Pî


and that culminating at dawn is Kan
Its days are zan and kwei.
Its creatures are the shell-covered
Its musical note is Yü
Its number is six
Its sacrifice is that at the altar of the path, and of the parts of the victim the kidneys have the foremost place.
The ice becomes more strong.
The son of Heaven occupies the Grand Fane Hsüan Thang; rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag.
All things relating to the dead are revised and regulated
Orders are given to the proper officer to the following effect:--
In this month orders are given to the Director of the eunuchs to issue afresh the orders for the palace, to examine all the doors, inner and outer, and look carefully after all the apartments. They must be kept strictly shut.
Orders are given to the Grand superintendent of the preparation of liquors to see that the rice and other glutinous grains are all complete; that the leaven-cakes are in season; that the soaking and heating are cleanly conducted; that the water be fragrant; that the vessels of pottery be good; and that the regulation of the fire be right.
The son of Heaven issues orders to the proper officers to pray and sacrifice to the spirits presiding over the four seas, the great rivers with their famous sources, the deep tarns, and the meres, all wells and springs.
In this month if the husbandmen have any productions in the fields, which they have not stored or collected, or if there be any horses, oxen or other animals,--which have been left at large, any one may take, them without its being inquired into.
If there be those who are able to take from, the hills and forests, marshes and meres. edible fruits, or to capture game by hunting, the wardens and foresters should give them the necessary information and guidance.
In this month the shortest day arrives.

Rice begins to grow.
When the shortest day has arrived, they fell trees, and carry away bamboos, especially the small species suitable for arrows.
In this month-offices in which there is no business may be closed,
and vessels for which there is no use may be removed.


They plaster and repair the pillars and gateways of the palace, and the courtyard within, and also doors and other gateways; rebuilding also all prisons, to co-operate with the tendency of nature to shut up and secure the genial influences at this season.

the proceedings of government proper to
summer
were observed, there would be droughts in the states; vapours and fogs would shed abroad their gloom, and thunder would utter its voice.
The Third Month
of
Winter

The sun is in Wû-nü


the constellation culminating at dusk being Lâu



And that culminating at dawn is Tî
Its days are zan and kwei.
Its creatures are the shell-covered.
Its musical note is Yü, and its pitch-tube is Tâ Lü
Its number is six
Its sacrifice is that at the altar of the path; and the part of the victim occupying the foremost place is the kidneys.


The wild geese go northwards.
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Hsüan Thang Fane; rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron-black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag. He is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured gems of jade. He cats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep.
He issues orders to the proper officers to institute on a great scale all ceremonies against pestilence, to have animals torn in pieces on all sides, and then to send forth the ox of earth, to escort away the injurious airs of the cold
Birds of prey fly high and rapidly
They now offer sacrifices all round to the spirits of the hills and rivers, to the great ministers of the ancient deified sovereigns, and to the spirits of heaven and earth.
In this month orders are given to the master of the Fishermen to commence the fishers' work. The son of Heaven goes in person to look on. He partakes of the fish caught, first presenting some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple
The ice is now abundant: thick and strong to the bottom of the waters and meres. Orders are given to collect it, which is done, and it is carried into the ice-houses.


Orders are given to make announcement to the people to bring forth their seed of the five grains. The husbandmen are ordered to reckon up the pairs which they can furnish for the ploughing; to repair the handles and shares of their ploughs; and to provide all the other instruments for the fields
Orders are given to the chief director of Music to institute a grand concert of wind instruments; and with this the music of the year is, closed
In this month the sun has gone through all his mansions; the moon has completed the number of her conjunctions; the stars return to their places in the heavens. The exact length of the year is nearly completed, and the year will soon begin again. It is said, 'Attend to the business of your husbandmen. Let them not be employed on anything else.'
The son of Heaven, along with his ducal and other high ministers and his Great officers, revises the statutes for the states, and discusses the proceedings of the different seasons; to be prepared with what is suitable for the ensuing year
Orders are given to the Grand recorder to make a list of the princes of the states according to the positions severally assigned to them, and of the victims required from them to supply the offerings for the worship of God dwelling in the great heaven, and at the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Orders were also given to the states ruled by princes of the royal surname to supply the fodder and grain for the victims used in the worship of the ancestral temple. Orders are given, moreover, to the chief minister to make a list of the appanages of the various high ministers and Great officers, with the amount of the land assigned to the common people, and assess them with the victims which they are to contribute to furnish for the sacrifices to the spirits presiding over the hills, forests, and famous streams. All the people under the sky, within the nine provinces, must, without exception, do their utmost to contribute to the sacrifices:-to God dwelling in the great heaven; at the altars of the (spirits of the) land and grain; in the ancestral temple and the apartment at the back of it; and of the hills, forests, and famous streams.
If, in the last month of winter, the governmental proceedings proper to autumn were observed, the white dews would descend too early; the shelly creatures would appear in monstrous forms; throughout the four borders people would have to seek their places of shelter. If those proper to spring were observed, women with child and young children would suffer many disasters; throughout the states there would be many cases of obstinate disease; fate would appear to be adverse. If those proper to summer were observed, floods would work their ruin in the states; the seasonable snow would not fall, the ice would melt, and the cold disappear.
Constellation culminating at dusk is Khih hsing,
The sun is in Wei
The Heavens
The sun is in Pî


The constellation culminating at dusk is Yî


and that culminating at dawn is Wû-nü
The Heavens
The Heavens
The sun is in Liû

The constellation culminating at dusk
being Kwo,

and that culminating at dawn is Khwei
The Heavens
The Heavens
The Heavens
The Heavens
The sun is in Fang


The constellation culminating at dusk being Hsü


The constellation culminating at dawn is Liû
The Heavens
The Heavens
The Heavens
http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/1261371
http://arts.cultural-china.com/en/62Arts11140.html
http://www.minerals.net/gemstone/jade_gemstone.aspx?img=/GemStoneImage/6/45/Jade.aspx
Moles are transformed into quails
Rainbows begin to appear
Duckweed begins to grow
http://www.1stdibs.com/furniture/asian-art-furniture/textiles/chinese-imperial-yellow-gauze-robe/id-f_897177/
"Chinesischer Maler des 12. Jahrhunderts (I) 001" by Deutsch: Chinesischer Maler des 12. Jahrhunderts (I) - The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH.. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinesischer_Maler_des_12._Jahrhunderts_(I)_001.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Chinesischer_Maler_des_12._Jahrhunderts_(I)_001.jpg
Put the dykes and dams in good repair, clear the ditches and larger channels, and open all paths, allowing no obstruction to exist.'
http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat13/sub84/item326.html
hand nets, archers' disguises,
and injurious baits should not issue from any of the nine gates.
The trays and baskets with the stands for the worms and cocoons are got ready. The queen, after vigil and fasting, goes in person to the eastern fields to work on the mulberry trees. She orders the wives and younger women of the palace not to wear their ornamental dresses, and to suspend their woman's-work, thus stimulating them to attend to their business with the worms.
When this has been completed, she apportions the cocoons, weighs out afterwards the silk, on which they go to work, to supply the robes for the solstitial and other great religious services, and for use in the ancestral temple. Not one is allowed to be idle.
The chiefs inspect their work, and daily give them their orders. They must not produce anything contrary to what the time requires; nor can they practise a licentious ingenuity, which would dissipate the minds of their superiors.
http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/51705
If those proper to
autumn
were observed, the sky would be full of moisture and gloom; excessive rains would fall early; and warlike movements would be everywhere arising.
If those proper to
summer
were observed, many of the people would suffer from pestilential diseases; the seasonable rains would not fall; and no produce would be derived from the mountains and heights.
Its creatures are the feathered.
http://www.chinaonlinemuseum.com/painting-birds-zhu-da-eagle.php
http://www.chinese-tools.com/learn/painting/subject/114/frog2.html
Its smell is that of things burning
Its taste is acrid
Its smell is that of things burning
Its taste is acrid
Its smell is that of things burning
Its taste is acrid
Its smell is rank.
Its taste is bitter.
Its taste is bitter
Its smell is rank
Its sacrifice is that of the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.
Its taste is bitter
Its smell is rank
Its sacrifice is that at the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.
Its taste is salt
Its smell is that of things that are rotten
Its taste is salt
Its smell is that of things that are rotten
Its taste is salt
Its smell is that of things that are rotten
Pheasants enter the great water and become large mollusks.
Rainbows are hidden and do not appear
Its pitch-tube is the Kû Hsien.
Its pitch-tube is the Kung Lü
Its pitch-tube is Sui Pin
Its pitch-tube is Lin Kung
Its pitch-tube is Î Zeh
Its pitch-tube is Nan Lü
Its pitch-tube is Wû Yî
Its pitch-tube is Ying Kung
Its pitch-tube is Hwang Kung
Superior men give themselves to self-adjustment and fasting. They keep retired in their houses.
The principle of darkness and decay in nature
struggles with that of brightness and growth.


The elements of life begin to move.
They wish to be at rest in their persons; put away all indulgence in music and beautiful sights; repress their various desires;
give repose to their bodies and all mental excitements.
They wish all affairs to be quiet, while they wait for the settlement of those principles of darkness and decay, and brightness and growth.
If there be among them those who encroach on or rob the others, they should be punished without fail.
These six things have all to be attended to, and the Grand superintendent has the inspection of them, to secure that there be no error or mistake.
All woman's-work must be diminished, and none of an extravagant nature permitted.
Though noble and nearly related friends should come to visit the inmates, they must all be excluded.
'There should nothing be done in works of earth; care should be taken not to expose anything that is covered, nor to throw open apartments and houses, and rouse the masses to action;--that all may be kept securely shut up.
Otherwise the genial influences of earth will find vent, which might be called a throwing open of the house of heaven and earth. In this case all insects would die; and the people be sure to fall ill from Pestilence, and various losses would ensue.
He is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured gems of jade.
He eats millet and sucking-pig.
The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep.
The earth begins to crack or split.
The night bird ceases to sing.
Tigers begin to pair
If those proper to
summer
were observed, there would be many violent winds in the states; winter itself would not be cold; and insects would come forth again from their burrows.
If those proper to
autumn
were observed ' the snow and hoarfrost would come unseasonably; small military affairs would constantly be arising; and incursions and loss of territory would occur.
the proceedings of government proper to
spring
were observed, the cold that shuts up all beneath it would not do so tightly; the vapours of the earth would rise up and go abroad; many of the people would wander away and disappear.
If they do this, they shall be punished for their guilt without forgiveness.
taking care not to encroach in any way on any among the myriads of the people, so as to awaken a feeling of dissatisfaction in them against the son of Heaven.
sacrifices with an ox, a ram, and a boar at the public altar to the spirits of the land, and at the gates of towns and villages; offers the sacrifice three days after the winter solstice with the spoils of the chase to all ancestors, and at the five household sacrifices;

-thus cheering the husbandmen and helping them to rest from their toils
When the production is not what it ought to be, the artificer should be held guilty

and an end be thus put to deception.

Every article should have its maker's name engraved on it, for the determination of its, genuineness.

and seeing that there be no licentious ingenuity in the workmanship which might introduce an element of dissipation into the minds of superiors; and making the suitability of the article the first consideration.
setting forth especially the sacrificial vessels with the measures and capacity of them and all others),
The measures for all these things are assigned, with the degrees and differences in them according to rank.
The minister of Instruction is also ordered to go round among the people and

see that they have formed their stores,
and that nothing is left ungathered.

'The airs of heaven are ascended on high, and those of earth have descended beneath.
There is no intercommunion of heaven and earth.
All is shut up and winter is completely formed.'
In this way all flattery and partisanship in the interpretation of them will become clear, and the crime of the: operators be brought home. No concealment or deceit will be allowed.
On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-adjustment; and on the day of the inauguration he leads in person the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, and his Great officers to meet the winter in the northern suburbs.
'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of winter. The character of the season is fully seen in water.'
On his return he rewards the descendants of those who died in the service of the kingdom, and shows his compassion to orphans and widows.
He eats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep.
The attending spirit is Hsüan-ming
the proceedings proper to
summer
were observed, there would be great floods in the states; the winter stores would be injured and damaged; there would be many colds and catarrhs among the people.
If those proper to
winter
were observed, there would be many thieves and robbers in the states; the borders would be unquiet; and portions of territory would be torn from the rest.
If those proper to
spring
were observed, the warm airs would come; the energies of the people would be relaxed and languid; and the troops would be kept moving about.
In accordance with the season, they hurry on the decision and punishment of criminal cases, wishing not to leave them any longer undealt with.
They call in emoluments that have been assigned incorrectly, and minister to those whose means are insufficient for their wants.
Finally, he gives orders to the superintendent of Sacrifices, to offer some of the captured game to the spirits of the four quarters.
The minister of Instruction, with his baton stuck in his girdle, addresses all before him with his face to the north.
The object of this is to provide what is necessary for the suburban sacrifices and those in the ancestral temple.
No private considerations are allowed to have place in this.
They receive the first days of the months for the coming year, and the laws for the taxation of the people by the princes, both light and heavy, and the amount of the regular contribution to the government, which is determined by the distance of the territories and the nature of their several productions.
and to store up the produce that has been gathered from the acres of God in the granary of the spirits; doing this with the utmost reverence and correctness
They must not allow anything to remain out in the fields.
He eats hemp-seeds and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular, cornered, and rather deep.
The khâi sacrifice larger animals, and kill and devour the smaller.
Chrysanthemums show their yellow flowers.
Small birds enter the great water and become mollusks.
Its divine ruler is Shâo Hâo
The attending spirit is 3û-shâu
If in this second month of
autumn
If those proper to
summer
were observed, there would be droughts in the states; insects would not retire to their burrows; and the five grains would begin to grow again.
If those proper to
winter
were observed, calamities springing from unseasonable winds would be constantly arising; the thunder now silent would be heard before its time; and plants and trees would die prematurely.
When merchants and others collect from all quarters, and come from the most distant parts, then the resources of the government do not fail. There is no want of means for its use; and all things proceed prosperously.
equalise the steel-yards and their weights;
rectify the weights of 30 and 120 catties;
and adjust the pecks and bushels.
The thunder begins to restrain its voice.

Insects stop up the entrances to their burrows.


The influence to decay and death gradually increases. That of brightness and growth daily diminishes.
The waters begin to dry up.
They should also stimulate the wheat-sowing. The husbandmen should not be allowed to miss the proper time for the operation. Any who do so shall be punished without fail.
to dig underground passages and grain-pits,
and to repair granaries, round and square.
They must arrange them according to their classes. In measuring their size, and looking at the length of their horns, they must have them according to the assigned measures.
When all these points are as they ought to be, God will accept the sacrifices.
give them stools and staves, and distribute supplies of congee for food.
He eats hemp-seed and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular or cornered, and rather deep.
He is clothed in the white robes, and wears the white gems.
Tribes of birds store up provisions for the future.
The swallows return whence they came.
The wild geese arrive.
The attending spirit is Zû-shâu
Its divine ruler is Shâo Hâo
If the proceedings proper to
summer
were observed, there would be many calamities from fire in the states; the cold and the heat would be subject to no rule; and there would be many fevers among the people.
If the proceedings proper to
spring
were observed, there would be droughts in the states; the bright and growing influence would return; and the five kinds of grain would not yield their fruit.
the proceedings of government proper to
winter
were observed, then the dark and gloomy influence of nature would greatly prevail; the shelly insects would destroy the grain; and warlike operations would be called for.
There should be no dismemberment of any territory, no sending out on any great commission,
and no issuing of great presents.
Orders are given to all the officers to begin their collecting and storing the contributions from
the husbandmen;
Heaven and earth now begin to be severe; there should be no excess in copying that severity, or in the opposite indulgence
The determination of cases, both criminal and civil, must be correct and just.
Orders are also given to the managers of prisons to look at wounds, examine sores, inspect broken members, and judge particularly of dislocations.
to revise the laws and ordinances,
to put the prisons in good repair,
to provide handcuffs and fetters,
to repress and stop villainy,
to maintain a watch against crime and wickedness, and
to do their endeavour to capture criminals.
He instructs them also to make enquiries about and punish the oppressive and insolent;

thereby making it clear whom he loves and whom he hates, and giving effect to the wishes of the people, even the most distant from court.
He eats hemp-seeds and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular, and going on to be deep.
Young hawks at this time sacrifice birds, as the first step they take to killing and eating them
the white dew descends
the cicada of the cold chirps.
The attending spirit is Zû-shâu
If those proper to
winter
were observed, the winds and cold would come out of season; the hawks and falcons would prematurely attack their prey; and all along the four borders people would enter their places of shelter.
If the proceedings proper to
autumn
were observed, even the high grounds would be flooded; the grain that had been sown would not ripen; and there would be many miscarriages among women.
the governmental proceedings proper to
spring
were observed, the produce of grain would be scanty and fail; in the states there would be many colds and coughs; and the people would remove to other places.
He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, to resemble the large growth of things.
Decaying grass becomes fire-flies.
Young hawks learn to practise the ways of their parents.

The cricket takes its place in the walls.
The assisting spirit is Khû-yung.
Its divine ruler is Yen Tî,
If those proper to
autumn
were observed, herbs and plants would drop their leaves; fruits would ripen prematurely; and the people would be consumed by pestilence.
If the proceedings proper to
spring
were observed, the grains would be late in ripening; all kinds of locusts would continually be appearing; and there would be famine in the states.
the governmental proceedings of
winter
were observed, hail and told would injure the grain; the roads would not be passable; and violent assaults of war would come.
The tree hibiscus flowers
The midsummer herb is produced
Cicadas begin to sing
The various magistrates keep things quiet and inflict no punishments; to bring about that state of settled quiet in which the influence of darkness and decay shall obtain its full development.
They keep retired in their houses, avoid all violent exercise, restrain their indulgence in music and beautiful sights, eschew the society of their wives, make their diet spare, use no piquant condiments, keep their desires under rule, and maintain their spirits free from excitement.
Superior men give themselves to vigil and fasting.
In this month the longest day arrives
and in this month the son of Heaven partakes of it along with pullets,

and with cherries set forth beside them,


first offering a portion in the apartment behind the ancestral temple.
Then orders are given throughout all the districts to sacrifice to the various princes, high ministers, and officers who benefited the people; praying that there may be a good harvest of grain.
After that comes the great summer sacrifice for rain to God, when all theinstruments of music are employed.
and to put in order the bells, sonorous stones, the instrument to give the symbol for commencing, and the stopper.
to tune the organs, large and small, with their pipes and tongues;
to teach the holding of the shields, pole-axes, lances, and plumes;
The mocking-bird ceases to sing
The shrike begins to give its notes;
The praying mantis is produced;
The attending spirit is Khû-yung
Its divine ruler is Yen Tî
If those proper to
spring
were observed, there would be the calamity of locusts, violent winds would come, and plants in flower would not go on to seed
If those proper to
winter
were observed, all plants and trees would wither early, and afterwards, there would be great floods, destroying city and suburban walls.
the proceedings proper to
autumn
were observed, pitiless rains would be frequent; the five esculent plants would not grow large, and in all the borders people would have to enter the places of shelter.
The object is with such cocoons to provide materials for the robes to be used at the sacrifices in the suburbs and in the ancestral temple.
for noble and mean, for old and young there is one law.
They decide cases for which the punishments are light; they make short work of small crimes, and liberate those who are in prison for slight offences.
no cutting down of large trees.

no sending forth of great multitudes on expeditions;

no commencing of works in earth;
There should be no injuring or overthrowing of anything;
His conferring of rank and regulation of emolument must be in accordance with the position of the individual.
In this month there takes place
the inauguration of summer.
He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, to resemble the large growth of things.
The attending spirit is Kû-yung
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_(rainbow-dragon)
http://www.zebrafinch.com/NewButtonquail/MainQuail.html
http://www.beijingholiday.com/beijing-autumn-tours/sites-for-red-leaves.html
The springs of water are all in movement.


The moose-deer shed their horns.

Worms curl.
The broom-sedge rises up vigorously.

The attending spirit is Hsüan-ming.
Its divine ruler is Kwan-hsü,
If those proper to
spring
were observed, locusts would work their harm; the springs would all become dry; and many of the people would suffer from leprosy and foul ulcers.
If those proper to
autumn
were observed, the weather would be rainy and slushy; melons and gourds would not attain their full growth; and there would be great wars in the states.
If in this second month of
winter
The attendant spirit is Hsüan-ming.
Its divine ruler is Kwan-hsü
Hens hatch.

The cock pheasant crows.
The magpie begins to build.

If in the first month of
spring

the governmental proceedings proper to
summer
were carried out, the rain would fall unseasonably, plants and trees would decay prematurely, and the states would be kept in continual fear.

If the proceedings proper to
autumn
were carried out, there would be great pestilence among the people; boisterous winds would work their violence; rain would descend in torrents; orach, fescue, darnel, and southernwood would grow up together.
Its smell is rank
Its taste is sour
Full transcript