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Imperialism in Burma

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Caroline Tang

on 2 September 2013

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Transcript of Imperialism in Burma

Motives for Imperialism
Social Reasons
European countries including Great Britain thought that they were superior than other countries such as Burma.
assisting the “poor” Burmese to prove that their country was better than other countries and more developed
Burmese migration to delta caused a shift in population and changed the basis of wealth and power
Indian laborers migrated to Burma, lowering the social standard

Religious Reasons
Wanted to spread Christianity by bringing in missionaries
Tried to eliminate Buddhism by teaching the negatives of Buddhism in schools
Only some parts of Burma was influenced by Christianity, ex.
Political Reasons
Britain wanted to expand their empire around the world.
Other countries gaining territories pressured Britain.
Wanted to expand their land.

Economical Reasons
Burma had abundant natural resources
Also in direct trade with China and India.
Britain would use the rice production and teak forests to support trade while taking Burma’s oil and rubies.
Wanting to defend the financial interests of foreign companies founded earlier for financial gain

External and Internal Forces
Resistance in Myanmar
Anglo Burmese War 1 (1824-1826)
Anglo Burmese War 2 (1852)
Anglo Burmese War 3 (1885)
Positive and Negative Effects of Imperialism
Where is Myanmar? (Burma)
Myanmar before Imperialism
Constitutional Monarchy
Different Ethnic Groups
Full of wealth and natural resources
Geographical Reasons
Burma’s western side was surrounded by Bay of Bengal :
Easy access points by ships and harbors.
Created good trade by other countries going to Burmese harbors.
Burma is also close to other major trade countries such as China,Thailand,
India and Nepal.
Burma had abundant teak forests and rice fields.

Death of Bandula
Low level of technology
Ethnic strikes
Untrained and barely armed soldiers

Internal Forces
A History of Burma By Maung Htin Aung
Daw Mya Yin Oo
Shooting an Elephant by George Owell
Age of Imperialism, Chapter 27, World History Textbook

Myanmar's Independence
How did Myanmar Gained Independence (cont.)
When the Japanese surrendered Burma achieved military administration.
The British try General Aung San and his troops for treason with the Japanese.
Realized later that it would be impossible since General Aung San was incredibly popular.

How Burma Gained Independence (cont.)
General Aung San made efforts to reconcile and unify Burma’s ethnic groups.
Tragically General Aung San and his new found members were murdered by opposition members.
Britain wanted Teak
Burmese people won’t give teak plantations to British.
War started
British won
Lower Burma was annexed

Anglo Burmese War 2 (1852)
Kone Baung Dynasty wanted to move into a territory close to India where British colonized the area.
British won
Treaty of Yandabo.
Rakhine (Arakan) was annexed

Anglo Burmese War 1 (1824-1826)
British wanted teak, oil and rubies
Burma gave French colony more influence.
British were not satisfied with the situation.
Upper Burma was annexed
Province of Burma

Anglo Burmese War 3 (1885)
January 4th 1948
Led by General Aung San
They gained independence from Britain after fighting alongside the Japanese army

When did Myanmar declare independence from Britain?
Japan invades Burma in 1942.
Invasion lasted for a year
Japan did not succeed in invading the whole colony.
By 1945 British troops had regained control over most of their colonies.
Japan and World War 2
General Aung San and thirty comrades were trained in a Japanese military camp.
They were promised that if they fought against the British with Japan. Freedom would be granted.
The Japanese did not keep their promise.

How Myanmar Gained Independence
General Aung San decided to negotiate an agreement between the British to fight against the Japanese.
General Aung San and the prime minister of Britain would soon come to an agreement that Burma should be granted independence.

How Myanmar Gained Independence
The Assassination was led by Galon U Saw.
Who were believed to be ordered to kill the General by the British.
The death of General Aung San was the most tragic day in the history of Burma.
Burma gained official independence on January 4 1948 at 4:20 am.
The dates were selected by astrologers specifically to bring good luck.

How did Myanmar Gained Independence (cont.)
This agreement stated that Burma would have full independence.
This created some controversy between the ethnic groups.
How did Myanmar Gained Independence (cont.)
Constitutional Monarchy

Kone Baung Dynasty
King Thibaw (last Burmese king)
1885- British took King Thibaw to India
Myanmar wasn't united
Every ethnic group wanted their own government
Rakhine had their own king
Shan had their own ruler : Saw Pwar
Kayin had their own ruler
Burmese had their own king
Different Ethnic Groups
Help of the Siamese
Railroads and Steamships
Resources from India
Advanced Weapons
Congreve Rockets
External Forces
Roads, Canals, Bridges, Railways
Schools, Hospitals
Knowledge of English language
Industrialized nation

Positive Effects
Villages were burnt down
Resources were taken
Displacement of natives
Negative Effects
Imperialism in Myanmar
by: Caroline, Kaung Myat, Patrick
India and China’s trade route passed through Myanmar.
Agriculture was very important.
Indian Influence was popular through trade merchants.
Famous resources were teak, oil and precious gems.

Wealth and Resources
Full transcript