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3.2: Aerobic Respiration

McGraw Hill Section 3.2
by

Ms. Klodt

on 6 February 2018

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Transcript of 3.2: Aerobic Respiration

Catabolic Pathways that require oxygen
Aerobic Respiration
Overview
Aerobic respiration
Substrate level phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electron Transport Chain
Chemiosmosis
Key Terms
4 stages
Glycolysis
Pyruvate Oxidation (Transition Reaction)
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
Electron Transport Chain/Chemiosmosis
Substrate level phosphorylation
Phosphate group is taken from a substrate molecule and given to ADP, forming ATP
Overall, 38 ATP produced from one molecule of glucose
Breakdown of glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules
Occurs in Cytoplasm of the cell
Net equation:
Glycolysis
Step 1:
Glucose
is phosphorylated by
ATP
, becoming
Glucose 6-Phosphate
, catalyzed by
hexokinase
.
Step 2:
Glucose 6-Phosphate
undergoes isomerization, becoming
Fructose 6-Phosphate
, catalyzed by
phosphoglucose isomerase
.
Step 3:
Fructose 6-Phosphate
is phosphorylated by
ATP
, becomes
Fructose 1, 6-biphosphate
, catalyzed by
phosphofructoskinase
.
Step 4: The
Fructose 1, 6-biphosphate
is split into
Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate
&
Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate (G3P)
, catalyzed by
aldolase
.
Step 5: The
Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate
is isomerized to
G3P
by
isomerase
Step 6: Each
G3P
is oxidized by NAD+, producing
NADH
. They are then phosphorylated, forming
1,3-Biphosphoglycerate (BPG)
, catalyzed by
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
.
Step 7: ADP takes a phosphate from each
BPG
, forming
3-Phosphoglycerate (3PG)
and
ATP
, catalyzed by
phosphoglycerate kinase
.
Step 8: Isomerization changes
3PG
to
2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG)
, catalyzed by
phosphoglycermutase
Step 9: Water is removed from
2PG
to form
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
, catalyzed by
enolase
.
Step 10: ADP takes a phosphate from each
PEP
, forming
pyruvate
and
ATP
, catalyzed by
pyruvate kinase
.
Steps in Glycolysis
Both pyrvuate molecules enter the mitochondria
Carbon is removed and exits as carbon dioxide
NAD+ oxidizes the molecule, becoming NADH
Co-enzyme A (CoA) joins, forming the final molecule of Acetyl-Coenzyme A
Pyruvate Oxidation
2 molecules of
Acetyl-CoA
enter the cycle. They release the
Co-A
, forming
citrate,
catalyzed by
Citrate Synthase

Citrate
is isomerized to
isocitrate,
catalyzed by

a
conitase.
Isocitrate
is oxidized by NAD+, forming
NADH
and releasing a
CO2
molecule, forming
alpha-ketoglutarate
, catalyzed by

isocitrate dehydrogenase.
Alpha-ketoglutarate
releases
CO2
.
NAD+ oxidizes the molecule forming
NADH
and Co-A is added, forming
Succinyl-CoA,
catalyzed by
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrongenase
,
Succinyl-CoA
has a phosphate group replace the Co-A. The phosphate is then given to GDP, forming GTP. It is then again passed onto ADP, forming
ATP
.
Succinate
is left, catalyzed by
succinyl-CoA synthetase
Succinate
is oxidized by FAD, forming
FADH2
and
Fumerate,
catalyzed by
Succinate dehyrdongenase
Fumerate
has H2O added, forming
malate,
catalyzed by
fumerase
Malate
is oxidized by NAD+, forming
NADH
and
Oxaloacetate,
catalyzed by
malate dehydrogenase
Oxaloacetate
reacts with Acetyl-CoA, continuing the cycle
The Krebs Cycle
Majority of ATP produced
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electron Transport Chain
Electron carriers & proteins embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane, called complexes
e- are donated by NADH and FADH2
Energy from electrons are used to pump hydrogen ions into the inner membrane space, forming a gradient across the membrane
NADH goes through all three complexes, FADH only through the last two
At end, oxygen accepts the electrons and hydrogens to form water
Electron Transport Chain
http://giantshoulders.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/etccomplexes.jpg
Mitochondria uses hydrogen ion gradient to create ATP, using an ATP synthase pump
36 ATP created, for a total of 38 in cellular respiration
Chemiosmosis
Main Ideas
By end of the lesson, you should be able to:
analyze the role of metabolic processes in the functioning of and interactions between biotic and abiotic systems
use appropriate terminology related to metabolism
explain the chemical changes and energy conversions associated with the processes of aerobic cellular respiration
use the laws of thermodynamics to explain energy transfer in the cell
describe, compare, and illustrate the matter and energy transformations that occur during the process of cellular respiration, including the roles of oxygen and organelles such as the mitochondria
Can you????
Explain the steps in glycolysis?
Show how many ATP are used/made in glycolysis?
Tell where it happens?
Describe the products formed through pyruvate oxidation?

You need to know the steps in both glycolysis & pyruvate oxidation.
Can you???
Explain the steps in the Krebs cycle, especially the energy transformations?
Describe how energy is created in chemiosmosis/ETC?
Full transcript