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3.2: Aerobic Respiration

McGraw Hill Section 3.2
by

Ms. Klodt

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of 3.2: Aerobic Respiration

Catabolic Pathways that require oxygen
Aerobic Respiration
Overview
Aerobic respiration
Substrate level phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electron Transport Chain
Chemiosmosis
Key Terms
4 stages
Glycolysis
Pyruvate Oxidation (Transition Reaction)
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
Electron Transport Chain/Chemiosmosis
Substrate level phosphorylation
Phosphate group is taken from a substrate molecule and given to ADP, forming ATP
Overall, 38 ATP produced from one molecule of glucose
Breakdown of glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules
Occurs in Cytoplasm of the cell
Net equation:
Glycolysis
Step 1: Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP, becoming Glucose 6-Phosphate, catalyzed by hexokinase.
Step 2: Glucose 6-Phosphate undergoes isomerization, becoming Fructose 6-Phosphate, catalyzed by phosphoglucose isomerase.
Step 3: Fructose 6-Phosphate is phosphorylated by ATP, becomes Fructose 1, 6-biphosphate, catalyzed by phosphofructoskinase.
Step 4: The Fructose 1, 6-biphosphate is split into Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate & Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate (G3P), catalyzed by aldolase.
Step 5: The Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate is isomerized to G3P by isomerase
Step 6: Each G3P is oxidized by NAD+, producing NADH. They are then phosphorylated, forming 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate (BPG), catalyzed by glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Step 7: ADP takes a phosphate from each BPG, forming 3-Phosphoglycerate (3PG), catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase.
Step 8: Isomerization changes 3PG to 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG), catalyzed by phosphoglycermutase
Step 9: Water is removed from 2PG to form Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), catalyzed by enolase.
Step 10: ADP takes a phosphate from each PEP, forming 2 molecules of pyruvate, catalyzed by pyruvate kinase.
Steps in Glycolysis
Both pyrvuate molecules enter the mitochondria
Carbon is removed and exits as carbon dioxide
NAD+ oxidizes the molecule, becoming NADH
Co-enzyme A (CoA) joins, forming the final molecule of Acetyl-Coenzyme A
Pyruvate Oxidation
2 molecules of
Acetyl-CoA
enter the cycle. Catalyzed by
Citrate Synthase
, they release the
Co-A
, forming
citrate
Aconitase
catalyzes the isomerization of
Citrate
to
Isocitrate
Isocitrate
is catalyzed by
isocitrate dehydrogenase
. It is oxidized by
NAD+
, forming
NADH
and releases a
CO2
molecule, forming
alpha-ketoglutarate
.
Alpha-ketoglutarate
is catalyzed by
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrongenase
, releasing
CO2.

NAD+
oxidizes the molecule forming
NADH
and Co-A is added, forming
Succinyl-CoA
.
Succinyl-CoA
is catalyzed by
succinyl-CoA synthetase
. A phosphate group replaces the
Co-A
. The phosphate is then given to GDP, forming GTP. It is then again passed onto ADP, forming
ATP
.
Succinate
is left.
Succinate
is catalyzed by
Succinate dehyrdongenase
and is oxidized by
FAD,
forming
FADH2
and
Fumerate.
Fumerate
is catalyzed by
fumerase
and
H2O
is added, forming
malate
Malate
is catalyzed by
malate dehydrogenase
and oxidized by
NAD+
, forming
NADH
and
Oxaloacetate
Oxaloacetate
reacts with
Acetyl-CoA
, continuing the cycle
The Krebs Cycle
Majority of ATP produced
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electron Transport Chain
Electron carriers & proteins embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane, called complexes
e- are donated by NADH and FADH2
Energy from electrons are used to pump hydrogen ions into the inner membrane space, forming a gradient across the membrane
NADH goes through all three complexes, FADH only through the last two
At end, oxygen accepts the electrons and hydrogens to form water
Electron Transport Chain
http://giantshoulders.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/etccomplexes.jpg
Mitochondria uses hydrogen ion gradient to create ATP, using an ATP synthase pump
36 ATP created, for a total of 38 in cellular respiration
Chemiosmosis
Main Ideas
By end of the lesson, you should be able to:
analyze the role of metabolic processes in the functioning of and interactions between biotic and abiotic systems
use appropriate terminology related to metabolism
explain the chemical changes and energy conversions associated with the processes of aerobic cellular respiration
use the laws of thermodynamics to explain energy transfer in the cell
describe, compare, and illustrate the matter and energy transformations that occur during the process of cellular respiration, including the roles of oxygen and organelles such as the mitochondria
Can you????
Explain the steps in glycolysis?
Show how many ATP are used/made in glycolysis?
Tell where it happens?
Describe the products formed through pyruvate oxidation?

You need to know the steps in both glycolysis & pyruvate oxidation.
Can you???
Explain the steps in the Krebs cycle, especially the energy transformations?
Describe how energy is created in chemiosmosis/ETC?
Full transcript