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Chapter 14

History of Early Modern Europe 1500-1900

Sue Billman

on 18 December 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 14

Renaissance and Reformation
creativity & new ideas
is French for
Began in Italy - trade made people curious
New way of thinking - human beings
capable of great things!
ART- 3D works - real looking - sense of personality
Michelangelo - painter/sculptor

Renaissance sculptors were careful to show the tiniest details in their works. This statue by Michelangelo is of David, a king of ancient Israel.
Leonardo da Vinci - sketches of future inventions
Literature - Author - William Shakespeare
poetry/plays -
Science- New inventions and techniques:
Movable printing press - 1400's
Reformation - Religious reform movement - early 1500's
Why? problems/corruption in Catholic Church.
Leaders too powerful and lost sight of religious duties.
1517 Martin Luther - nailed list of complaints to
church door.
Expelled him from church & he and followers broke from the church and became Protestants.
This began the Catholic Reformation-
series of reforms - focus more spiritual, less
political & made church teaching easier to understand, and spread word all over world.

Religious wars in some areas led to political & social

PEOPLE can think for themselves and use science instead of relying on church leaders and other authority figures.
1350 - 1500's
Science and Exploration
Scientific Revolution - events that
led to the birth of modern science

Observations important - not just believe
what told.

This view changed society! Some science went against church beliefs/teaching.
Galileo - 1632-
Earth orbit the sun!
Galileo 1632 - Earth orbits the sun -used to think Earth was center!
Biology - how blood circulates
New inventions: telescope, microscope, and thermometer
Age of Exploration:
Advancements in sailing & mapmaking.
Looking for adventure, spread Christian faith, riches.
1492 - Colombus
1519 - Megellan - circumnavigate Earth.
These voyages paved way for Europe to colonize/settle Americas
Spanish - Aztec & Inca Empires
Gained gold and silver
enslaved natives & Africans
Spain = mightiest

By 1700's England, Netherlands &
Portugal gained colonies too.

PAGE 356 European Empires in Americas 1700
Political Change in
Enlightenment- use of reason to shape
ideas about society and politics

Age of Reasoning 1600-1700's
logical thought challenged long held

Reason & logic could achieve knowledge,
freedom, and happiness -improve society
Thought that government should
protect and serve people - limit power of govt. and realize people have natural rights. Led to Age of Revolution
Age of Revolution:
Civil War and Reform in Europe
Documents pages 360-361
Ideas spread to North America and throughout Europe
French Revolution - Storming the
Bastille Prison - 1789
3rd Estate wanted Kings power limited - Louis XVI said "NO"
Napoleon Bonaparte - crowned himself
emperor. Some good ideas, yet harshly
punished people who questioned/opposed
him. Expanded empire - downfall tried to invade Russia 1812 - General Winter(not a person - bitter cold & snow)
500,000 came
50,000 survived
Congress of Vienna 1814
try to keep any one country from ever becoming powerful enough to threaten Europe again - redrew map of Europe - divided Europe into smaller countries.
Industrial growth began in textiles (cloth products)
Steam power - coal - factories could be located more
places (not just near river for water power)
Inventions of steel, transportation, and communication.
Riverboats & Trains
Factory System
Industrial Revolution spread across
Capitalism- individuals owned businesses
Industrial Revolution
History of
Modern Europe
goods cheaper $$
more available
middle class grew
cities larger = dirty, noisy, crowded &
more disease
new laws needed
Industrial Revolution
Mid 1700's
Rapid growth in machine - made
goods & new inventions and technology

New technology/inventions in farming = less need for people = farmers moved to cities

Farmers became factory workers
Factory System:
farm/home work now factory work
women & children
long hours & dangerous work
factory conditions bad
Changes in society:
goods cheaper
more goods available to people
life easier because of new inventions
middle class grew
Cities dirty, noisy & crowded
new laws needed to be passed
In France:
Great Fear-Farmers attacked landloards

Reign of Terror - government executed thousands of its opponents - guillotine

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