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Transcript of China
Throughout the late 19th century, China was dominated by the imperial powers-
Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan.
China viewed these outsiders as barbaric. Their civilization had existed for thousands of years.
The 'Open Door Policy' of European intervention reduced Chinese autonomy and resulted in a violent attempt to end foreign intrusion.
The Boxer Rebellion was crushed by imperial forces with severity
The last Chinese Emperor was overthrown in 1911.
A nationalist government under Sun Yat-sen was formed.
This government struggled to assert authority as the nation dissolved into warlord dominated provinces.
After Sun Yat-sen's death, his governing party, the Kuomintang, was led by Chiang Kai-shek.
As he consolidated the KMT's hold on China, he attacked his former communist allies.
The communists evaded capture, and the first legend of Mao was born: The Long March
Mao's communists covered thousands of miles, and found popularity with many of the peasants in the countryside.
When the Japanese invaded, though the two were in an uneasy alliance, Chiang Kai-shek's forces spent as much time fighting the communists as the Japanese.
Mao's forces fought the Japanese, which consolidated their popularity with many Chinese.
Though China was viewed as an important ally, the KMT were viewed as ineffective, and the materiel and supplies they received were being stockpiled for the fight against the communists or enriching a corrupt regime.
As WWII finished, the struggle began: Mao's communists and Chiang's Nationalist government
The US supported Chiang. Mao had support too.
Mao's Communism and Guerrilla Warfare
Traditional communist theory held that an industrialized working class would overthrow the bourgeoisie.
In the USSR, a small cadre of communist leadership had seized power.
China had virtually no industry. It was a nation of peasants, most of whom lived in the countryside.
Mao's party had broad support from the peasants.
Guerrilla Warfare: Mao's Genius
Mao's brilliant use of guerrilla warfare would be a model for many subsequent revolutions. He understood the importance of politics when fighting a superior force.
-ensure you never steal or abuse the civilain population
Don't engage superior forces- attack when you possess the advantages in numbers and tactics
Launch surprise attacks on transportation routes, individual groups of police or military, installations and structures, economic enterprises, and targeted civilians.
Attacking in small groups, using camouflage and captured weapons of the enemy, the guerrilla force can constantly keep pressure on its foes and diminish its numbers, while still allowing escape with relatively few casualties.
The intention of such attacks is not only military but political, aiming to demoralize target populations or governments, or goading an overreaction that forces the population to take sides for or against the guerrillas.
Mao's communists and the People's Liberation Army successfully demonstrated the future of these struggles for insurgents everywhere. Surround the towns with the villages, surround the cities with the towns.
After several years of open war, the Communists triumphed. Chiang's Nationalists fled to Formosa (now referred to as Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China, the most populous nation on earth, was the latest addition of the communist world.
Don't worry- a totalitarian regime never hurt anyone, right?