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Transcript of Digestive System
first part of
small intestine Appendix Jejunum -
second part of
small intestine Ascending colon -
first part of
large intestine Cecum Anus Rectum - last part of large intestine Descending colon - third part of
large intestine Salivary Glands Tongue Mouth Epiglottis Teeth Saliva Tongue Rolling the food around - increase surface area Ileum - third part
of small intestine Transverse colon -
second part of
large intestine Sigmoid colon From salivary glands Three in human body Contains salivary amylase (from salivary glands) Parotid (below ears)
Sublingual (below tongie)
Submandibular (under lower jar) Peristalsis The swallowing process reflex contraction action by smooth muscles The food is then called bolus after chewing Moisten and lubricate the food When you swallow: 1. the soft palate moves back, cover the nosopharyngeal openings. 2. Trachea moves up so that food will go down the the esophagus 3. epiglottis covers the opening of larynx. Pharynx Between mouth and esophagus Esophagus mucus membrane: the inner surface
contains both circular and longitudinal muscle Cardiac sphincter the ring structured muscles between mouth and stomach avoid vomiting Contains gastric juice produced by gastric glands contains pepsinogen, an inactive enzyme and hydrochloric acid, which causes the stomach's pH to be 3 (very acidic)
pepsinogen + hydrochloric acid = pepsin
pepsin: a hydrolysis enzyme which break down proteins to peptides The food then is called acidic chyme Pyloric sphincter the ring structured muscle between stomach and small intestine make sure the food goes in one way First part of small intestine Mechanical and chemical digestion occurs absorption of alcohol can occurs Ulcer: holes in the stomach wall due to lack of mucus Gastrin, released by the upper part of stomach, causes the secretion of gastric juice Most chemical digestion takes place in NaHCO3: neutralized the acid chyme (to pH = 8) lipase: fat droplets -> glycerol & fatty acids trypsinogen -> trypsin : polypeptides -> peptides pancreatic amylase: starch -> maltose nucleosidase: nucleotides -> nucleic acids contains intestinal juice peptidase: peptides -> amino acids maltase: moltose -> 2 glucose contains pancreatic juice contains bile delivered by pancreatic duct from pancreas created by liver, stores in gallbladder, and delivered by bile duct Slightly basic bile salt (NOT AN ENZYME!) breaks fats to smaller droplets (emulsification) thick green liquid made of dead blood cells (hemoglobin) created by interstitial glands lactase: lactose -> glectose + glucose sucrase -> glucose + fructose more information of liver? 1. Detoxify blood After nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine, they go into our blood. Blood then flows to liver so that it can be detoxified. 2. Produce bile 3. Regulate blood [glucose] Liver will convert glucose to glycogen or the other way around when needed. It is controlled by insulin (a hormone released by pancreas) and glucagen. Insulin can cause glucose in the blood to be taken up by cells. 4. Storage 5. Makes plasma proteins 6. produce urea NH3 + CO2 + NH3 = urea+ H2O in urine 7. blood cholesterol (x8) (x12) (x4) (x8) Jejunum & Ilium Most digestion and absorption occurs here About 6m long the first 25cm of the small intestine More information? ---> The first place where food is placed in Has many villi - increase surface area Long, folded Absorption of water and certain vitamins Has three parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon Contains a type of bacteria: E. Coli Produces vitamin, amino acids, and other growth factors Break down some indigestible food End product (indigestible food) is called feces Opening of rectum (last 20cm of large intestine which is responsible of storing feces) is called anus Nuclease: RNA and RNA -> nucleotides Finish up digestion Absorption of nutrients Longer than the large intestine, but has smaller diameter Bile is produced in liver and stores in the gallbladder. If we don't have bile, it will takes a long time to break down the fats that we eat. Bile can break the fats to smaller fat droplet (mechanical digest). Liver can store various things. It stores fat soluble vitamins (this is why people shouldn't take them,) irons, glycogen (so that it can be converted to glucose whenever needed,) and extra blood. Liver produces some proteins and secretes them into blood stream. For example, fibrinogen and albumin. Deamination of amino acids and excretion of resulting ammonia such as urea, uric acid, etc. Liver produces cholesterol and converts it it into bile. It controls the level of cholesterol in our blood. Secretin, produces by small intestine, causes the pancreas to release of NaHCO3 and other pancreatic enzymes CCK, produced in small intestine, causes liver to secrete bile and pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice GIP, released by small intestine, inhibits stomach peristalsis and acid secretion REVIEW QUESTIONS Which statement is correct? a. Mouth is only responsible for mechanical digestion b. Mouth is only responsible for chemical digestion c. Mouth is responsible for both digestion and absorption d. Mouth is responsible for both mechanical and chemical digestion Which of these does NOT help prevent food going down the "wrong way"? a. Soft palate b. Hard palate c. Epiglottis d. Trachea What prevent stomach from eating itself? a. Mucus b. Pepsin c. Pepsinogen d. All of the above Which of the following is produced in liver? a. Pepsinogen b. Bile salts c. Sodium bicarbonate d. Lipase Which is the correct match? a. Trypsin - protein - stomach b. Pepsin - protein small intestine c. Lipase - fat - small intestine d. All of the above (enzyme - reactant - working site) Which one below is NOT found in small intestine? a. Sucrase b. maltase c. Lactase d. Pancreatic amylase e. Non of the above Which of the following can be found in small intestine? a. E. coli b. Mocus c. HCl d. Villi e. All of the above Which of the following is NOT one of liver's functions? a. Storage of bile b. Storage of glycogen c. Storage of vitamins d. Storage of iron e. Storage of extra blood Which of them is the incorrect match? a. Gastrin - Stomach (hormnone - released by what part) b. Secretin - Pancreas c. CCK - Small intestine d. GIP - Small intestine Which statement is incorrect? a. We have 4 incisors b. We have 4 canines c. We have 8 premolars d. We have 12 molars Appendix Some people believe that there are some bacterias in appendix, but generally, it is know as no function. It is often removed when there is infection (fatty acids & glycerol) (glucose & amino acids) *Both active and passive