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Dangerous, risky, hazardous and perilous - are they synonyms

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Katarzyna Adamiak

on 27 May 2014

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Transcript of Dangerous, risky, hazardous and perilous - are they synonyms

Dangerous, risky, hazardous and perilous - are they synonyms?
Dangerous
LDOCE: able or likely to harm or kill you; involving a lot of risk, or likely to cause problems;
Frequency: 55,55 pMW
Risky
LDOCE: involving a risk that something bad will happen
Frequency: 6,27 pMW
LDOCE: very dangerous (literary or formal)
Frequency: 1,68 pMW
Hazardous
LDOCE: dangerous, especially to people's health or safety
Frequency: 7 pMW
Conclusions
dangerous is by far the most popular of the four adjectives
each of the four adjectives has completely different collocations with nouns and verbs, the only similarities are visible with adverbs, but those collocations are shared with many adjectives
dangerous is the most common one, hazardous is connected with science, risky with economy and perilous with literature
dangerous has the highest pMW rate in to_be_spoken medium: 164.911 which is 3 times as high as its overall pMW count
in teaching, dangerous should be taught early, risky and hazardous are options for more advanced students, whereas perilous should be reserved for the most advanced students
hazardous <N*> (437, 141 indiv.)
waste (109)
materials (21)
wastes (21)
chemicals (19)
journey (15)
substances (14)
undertaking (9)
properties (8)
business (8)
occupation (8)
prove (3)
considered (3)
slams (2)
identify (2)
see (2)
made (2)
carrying (2)
<VB*> 68
more 28
potentially 28
extremely 10
particularly 9
most 8
less 8
very 7
as 6
highly 3
especially 3
journey (7)
state (6)
position (6)
situation (5)
way (3)
adventures (2)
time (2)
angle (2)
sea (2)
descent (2)
prove (1)
reminded (1)
become (1)
remain (1)
<VB*> 10
more (14)
less (5)
how (2)
as (2)
too (2)
often (2)
so (2)
particularly (1)
still (1)
already (1)

<VV*> hazardous (49, 40 indiv.)
<AV*> hazardous (160, 45 indiv.)
Perilous
perilous <N*> (106, 71 indiv.)
<VV*> perilous (4, 4 indiv.)
<AV*> perilous (37, 15 indiv.)
dangerous <N*> (2451, 1085 indiv.)
thing (51)
situation (46)
place (38)
substances (37)
dogs (33)
man (32)
ground (29)
situations (27)
game (27)
driving (26)
<VV*> dangerous (276, 148 indiv.)
looked (26)
become (16)
prove (11)
considered (11)
becoming (6)
becomes (6)
look (5)
remain (5)
carrying (5)
made (4)
<VB*> 911
<AV*> dangerous (1906, 156 indiv.)
more (286)
very (249)
most (233)
too (154)
potentially (131)
as (64)
extremely (63)
how (62)
highly (61)
less (43)
risky <N*> (245, 111 indiv.)
business (25)
situations (21)
junctions (15)
exemplars (11)
activities (7)
ventures (6)
investments (6)
ones (6)
thing (5)
behaviour (4)
<VV*> risky (30, 24 indiv.)
considered (4)
avoid (2)
taking (2)
seemed (2)
<VB*> 84
<AV*> risky (291, 44 indiv.)
too (61)
more (41)
less (38)
so (22)
very (18)
as (9)
highly (9)
extremely (8)
least (8)
most (7)
THANK YOU!
authors: Katarzyna Adamiak
and Edyta Pilarska
authors: Katarzyna Adamiak and Edyta Pilarska
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