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Ancient Egypt

culture and civalization of the ancient Egyptians
by

Stephanie Oliva

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

:culture and civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr priest and priestesses polytheistic
was greatly influenced by tradition
this made the ancient egyptians very resistant to change religion gods and goddesses from egyptian mythology are mainly anthropomorphic or human shaped except for their heads which in the norm take the shape of an animals they represent or that represent them
because most gods had more than a single form,when accounted for their were over 700
because in their eyes the pharaoh himself was considered a god, Egypt was considered a theocracy Egyptian deities the sun god
alleged king of the egyptian gods also the most important
Egyptians believed he was swalloed by Nut( the sky goddess)every morning and
sacred animal-hawk RA Member (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr religion History traditions priests played a key role in egyptian society
similar to later Hebrew priests they they ran their temples with iron fists; strict rules were made & enforced
certain sections were off limits to everyone except the priest -the egyptian god of wisdom
-sacred animal-ibis
-thanked for all of the major achievements and discoveries of the egyptian era Thoth Osiris god of the underworld, o death in general, & resurrection
similar traits to Hades in the ancient greek mythology
most revered of all the gods
sacred animal-phoenix... goddess of magic & protection
wife of Osiris
mother of Horus(in some stories she is also his wife) Isis Horus god of embalming (the mummification process) or disposing (burying, burning, etc.) of bodies of the dead
helped embalm Osiris when he was killed by Seth
sacred animal- jackal
often seen in cemeteries these sightings were thought to be Anubis watching over his charges. Anubis pharaoh was believed to be the living form of him fought Seth for the throne when Osiris was murdered Seth
son of Isis & Osiris(in some stories also married to Isis)
sacred animal-hawk most well known ruler of ancient Egypt Geb god of the earth( land & oceans)
husband & sister of the sky goddess nut. They are forever separated
sacred animal- goose Nut goddess of the sky
mother of Isis, Osiris, Nepthys and Seth.
wife of Geb
Myth- Every night she swallowed the sun god Ra & every morning she gave birth to him Bes Ma'at god of dwarfs
protector of children, the family, & pregnant women
also believed to have protected against snake bites
very popular with the ave. citizen
sacred animal- lion goddess of truth, balance, harmony, & justice
daughter of Ra
Pharaohs often ordered depictions of themselves giving offerings to her made. This showed that they were keeping order & balance in Egypt Seth god of chaos
represents everything that was wrong/threatened egyptian society
brother of Osiris, Isis,
husband & sister to Nepthys Nepthys godess protector & of the dead
wife/sister to Seth
shown in coffin & funeral scenes society government technology agriculture technology canals- they used an irrigation system to make land around the Nile fertile more fertile run by hand. papyrus- the ancient egyptians invented paper. At first it was made from a reed found by the Nile. It was smashed together until the fibers blended to produce the final product Architecture pulley-also the 1st people to use a pulley systems for moving large objects. architecture Everyone has heard of the great pyramids of Ancient Egypt.What most people don't realize is the fact that these magnificent structures were only built at the beginning of the Egyptian reign. In terms, they were only built during the old kingdom. The earliest known architect was Imhotep who was said to have designed the Step Pyramid of Djoser from 2,667 BC - 2,648 BC. Worship the egyptians carried around idols with them because they belived that through this form of worship they could obtain protection from the god whose statue they carried.
they performed rituals similar to Greek festivals performed in honor of a certain god
An example of such an event called "The Birth of Ra"was on the first day of the year when the Egyptians carried all of the statues of the goddesses &gods up to the roof of the temple so the gods could all watch and be united with this moment of Re birth the people TRADITION CULTURE Sources so the bodies of the dead would be preserved for the afterlife they were often stripped of their inner organs and wrapped in a sealing cloth
organs were carefully put in jars of preserving herbs & buried with the body. The heart was always treated the most respectfully. This was because it was thought that Ma'at would weigh it on a scale compared to a feather. IF they balanced each other out than the soul could move into the afterlife.
this is more commonly referred to today as the mummification process
Ancient egyptians were convinced that in order to live prosperously in the afterlife they had to be buried with all of the things they needed when they were alive such as:
food
clothing
art
pets
favorite object
& if they were wealthy even people (pharaoh tombs have been known to contain entire house staffs) Funerals school was often reserved for boys and girls the upper classes of Egypt
They took their classes direct from scribes in special buildings
Parents of lower classes sometimes hired tutors to teach their children inside the home
if the families were to poor to afford tutors they were taught their parents trade Education women of Egypt unlike many other cultures of the day were treated as equals to men in most aspects
children lived with their parents until they were married off
girls-between ages 14-15
boys between 19-20 Family there were many different aspects of egyptian tradition some included: ART in ancient Egypt a man & women could be considered married by simply living in the same house although marriage contracts did exist
women could divorce men
Music was considered of "sacred origin" in Egyptian
The Ankh representing eternal life was the most popular Egyptian symbol. Origins unknown Other Egyptian art often depicted stories such as the life of a dignitary/pharaoh, representation of humans/animals/gods, or an event
artistic pieces of the day included paintings, sculptures & jewelery
egyptians loved art so much that it was often buried with them in hopes that it would follow then into the after life Parents of Egypt often had many children like most civilizations even today the ancient Egyptians were divided up into classes (not castes)
people could work themselves out of their class
Religion played a key role in egyptian society they were very solid in their beliefs
They were a very colorful people enjoying many different types of art music the People Every year around the same time the river Nile Valley flooded. The egyptians thought that all this water had to be good for something.They created irrigation systems to stretch the water further into the un-fertile ground surrounding the river. This fared excellently for them. They started producing all of their own food. A diet which mainly consisted of fish, onions, fruit, bread and beer. Meat and poultry was also consumed by some wealthier Egyptians. Agriculture Ruled by the all power( within his kingdom) Pharaoh
because the Pharaoh himself (or herself in later times) , was considered a god/goddess the government of Ancient Egypt was considered a Theocracy
Pharaoh was advised by wise men & his royal Vizier Government Two Three Four (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr pharogh history sources 3200 BC 30BC 1664 BC 2190 BC upper & lower Egypt are united 2687BC beginning of the old kingdom end of old kingdom beginning of middle kingdom 2061 BC end of middle kingdom beginning of New Kingdom 1557BC Conquest of Alexander the great 332BC Egypt becomes a roman province Age of the Pharaohs:
-Tutankhamen- the boy king
-Hatshepsut- the feminist
-Ramses- the builder NEW began burying dead pharaohs in the Valley of the Kings
expanded Southwards into Nubia
Taxed Nubian 's
Were invade by the Hyskos who ruled for 150 years Middle Old pyramids were only built during this time period
came up with the concept of the Pharaoh
invented their own process of mummification -Amenhotep 4-the religious revolutionist Ahmose drove the Hyksos out 1550BC
under his rule Egypt became richer and powerful than ever --------- --- ---- ---------------- Gill,N.S. “Egyptian Gods and Goddesses.”/ The New York Times Company.2012.Web(.Aug.23,2012)http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/egyptmyth/tp/071507egyptiandeities.htm AUTHOR- N.A. Ancient Egypt./The Trustees of the British Museum .1999.web.(Aug.24,2012.)http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html Perry,Glenn E.The History of Ancient Egypt.Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group,2004.Print Ades, Harry. A Travelers History of Egypt.NorthHampton: Interlink Publishing group.2007.Print. Al-Sayid Marsot, Afaf Lutfi.A History of Egypt. New York: Cambridge University Press.2007.Print. Roberts,Russell. Rulers of Ancient Egypt. San Diego:Lucent Books.1999.Print. Time Life.ed. Egypt:Land of the Pharohs.Alexandria:Life-Time Books.1992.Print.
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