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Sociology - Ethnicity, Racism and Stereotypes lesson 13
Transcript of Sociology - Ethnicity, Racism and Stereotypes lesson 13
The media is littered with Ethnic stereotypes which are often negative representations. The ethnic minorities are greatly under represented in the media with little ethnic figures in top positions.
Ethnic minorities are typically portrayed as deviant, dependents or as sports figures. Minority ethnics are usually included in shows as a Tokenism, to add comedy value, or poke fun at.
Developing countries are seen as a 'problem' with media attention focused primariliy on wars, famine, disasters etc. This is reflected in the way that ethnic groups are portrayed.
Marxists would argue that this is to promote superiority of white western culture and inferiority of ethnic minorities.
In the news, criminal activity focuses more on the ethnic minorities, particularly stories of benefit scrounging, asylum seekers, 'black crimes' and terrorism.
Crimes that have been labelled by the media as being committed primarily by black people. Black youths are considered a dangerous social problem (Folk Devils)
The way in which we view, perceive and interpret race in the media is due to the way it is presented. We are presented a view of ethnic minorities that is 'through the white gaze', and we interpret this through the 'grammar of race'. ( Inferential racism in the media that stems from deep rooted racial stereotypes)
Functionalists would argue that the representation of ethnic minorities in the media is such that it addresses the need for change in terms of how society views them.
Some sociologists would argue that the way in which ethnic minorities are portrayed in the media creates a sense of 'otherness'.
Appreciation of culture from different races
The success of people from many cultural backgrounds have become more of a stereotypical norm in the media.
Ethnic minorities are better represented in 'actual' life tv shows such as soaps and dramas. The portrayal is more realistic as representations reflect society today.
Representations are fairer and more accurate
Representations are more positive
Cultural aspects are becoming more and more a part of mass culture.
The birth of Islamophobia
The irrational intolerance, fear or hatred towards muslims that leads to discrimination and prejudice against those who practice the religion of Islam.
Anti-Semitism - Hilter ordered the mass execution of millions of Jews
Anti- Catholicism - Henry VIII, Guy Fawkes and Oliver Cromwell
Anti-Christian sentiment - Persecution of Christians in the Gaza strip.
To understand how ethnicity, race and religious beliefs help to construct our identity
But where does it stem from?
Prejudice is rife in society, especially when it concerns race, ethnicity and religious beliefs
"A negative assumption, judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge or examination of the facts"
"unfair treatment of a person, racial group, minority, etc, that is based on prejudice"
race is an assigned social category based on certain biological characteristics, such as skin colour, nose and eye shape.
ethnicity is a concept referring to a shared culture and way of life. Ethnicity can be reflected in language, religion, material culture such as clothing and food, and cultural products such as music and art.
What is ETHNICITY?
Throughout history, many religions have been the subject of prejudice and persecution.
The Runnymede report identified that the following eight views are equated with Islamophobia:
Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change.
It is seen as separate and "other." It does not have values in common with other cultures, is not affected by them and does not influence them.
It is seen as inferior to the West. It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist.
It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorism, and engaged in a clash of civilizations.
It is seen as a political ideology, used for political or military advantage.
Criticisms made of "the West" by Muslims are rejected out of hand.
Hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society.
Anti-Muslim hostility is seen as natural and normal
the appearance of certain 'base-images' of races in some of the movies of the early to mid 20th century. Hall gives three examples of base-images, (1) the slave-figure which is devoted to his/her master but is yet untrustworthy, (2) the native who appears to have a dual nature in literature either being noble and kind or savage and barbaric, and (3) is the clown/entertainer.