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John Cordell

on 24 January 2014

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Transcript of Psychology

attribution theory
- the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Classical Conditioning

-associating two stimuli-one produces an effect naturally (US), the other becomes associaterespondent behaviors-out of your conscious control (ex: salivating of dog, hunger pains, fear response)
Allows animals to adapt
Biologically adaptive because it helps prepare for good and bad events
Forming associations between stimuli (respondent can’t readily control)
Is one way that virtually all organisms learn to adapt to their environment
-Pavlov showed us how to study learning objectively

Key Terms
Stage 1: Polysomnography (sleep readings) shows a reduction in activity between wakefulness and stage 1 sleep. The eyes are closed during Stage 1 sleep. One can be awakened without difficulty, however, if aroused from this stage of sleep, a person may feel as if he or she has not slept. Stage 1 may last for five to 10 minutes. Many may notice the feeling of falling during this stage of sleep, which may cause a sudden muscle contraction (called hypnic myoclonia).
Stage 2: This is a period of light sleep during which polysomnographic readings show intermittent peaks and valleys, or positive and negative waves. These waves indicate spontaneous periods of muscle tone mixed with periods of muscle relaxation. The heart rate slows and the body temperature decreases. At this point, the body prepares to enter deep sleep.
Stages 3 and 4: These are deep sleep stages, with stage 4 being more intense than Stage 3. These stages are known as slow-wave, or delta, sleep. If aroused from sleep during these stages, a person may feel disoriented for a few minutes
14 -2
- feelings often influenced by our beliefs that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events
peripheral-route persuasion
- occurs when people are influenced by incidental queues such as a speaker's attractiveness
central-route persuasion
- occurs when interestedpeople focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
States of Consciousness
The study of behavior and thought
Sensation and Perception
Hannah Fowler

History and Approaches

Jake Willis
Bailee Wallace
AP Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Dan Sun
Richard Tatum
Testing and Individual Differences

Catherine Murray
Griffin Young
Isabelle Potts
Andrew Terry

Treatment of
Abnormal Behavior
Arden Terry and Akeira Warner
Biological Basis of Behavior
Motivation and Emotion
Mary-Madison Arnold
Maddy Stripling
Developmental Psychology
Dan Sun
Richard Tatum
Social Psychology
Claudia Boyd
Zane Lincoln
Research Methods
Jake Willis
Key Terms
Arden Terry Akeira Warner
Pitch Perception
Place Theory: low frequency sounds vibrate different area of Basilar membrane than high frequency
Frequency theory: high pitch sounds vibrate hair cells more quickly
Absolute threshold: minimum amount of a stimulus that you respond to 50% of the time (Gustav Fechner)
subliminal: a stimulus below the absolute threshold
Priming: lower apparent absolute threshold through expectations
Motivational Concepts

motivation- a desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct- a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory- the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis- a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation
incentive- a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
basal metabolic rate- the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
sexual response cycle- the four stages of sexual response- excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
refractory period- a resting period after orgasm
estrogen- sex hormone in greater amounts in females
refractory period- a resting period after orgasm where a man cannot have another orgasm
sexual disorder- a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or function
sexual orientation- sexual attraction toward either men or women
industrial-orgazinational (I/O) psychology- applies physocholgy's principles to the workplace
personnel psychology- applies psychology's methods and principles to selecting and evaluating workers
organizational psychology-
human factors psychology

Freud's theroy of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconcious motives and conflicts.
view personality with a focus on the potential for helathy personal growth.
Theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistant.
A characteristic patter of behavior or a disposition to feel an act as assessed by self report inventories and peer reports.
Social Cognition-
Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between peoples traits nd their social contacts.
branch of psychology that focuses on observable behaviors.
Elizabeth Loftus (memory researcher)
George Miller (short term memory can retain about seven information bits)
Three forms: recall, recognition, relearning
Memory models: encoding, storage, retrieval
RIchard Atkinson's and Richard Shiffin's three stage model: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
working memory
expicit memory
= effortful processing
Distributed Practice
spacing effect, testing effect
Levels of Processing: Shallow, deep
memory storage (hippocampus)
implicit memory
= automatic processing
cerebellum and basal ganglia
The amygdala, emotions and memory
flashbulb memories
space, time, frequency (where you ate dinner yesterday)
motor and cognitive skills (riding a bike)
classical conditioning (reaction to dentist's office)
Synaptic changes: long term potentiation (LTP)
Retrieval Cues: Priming, State Dependent Memory, Mood Congruent Memories, Serial Position Effect
Hermann Ebbinghaus (distributive practice produces better long-term recall)
Major Theories
Research Methods that Investigate Personalities
Case Studies
-a process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time.
-A survey is used to gather information about individuals. A survey may focus on factual information about individuals, or it may aim to collect the opinions of the survey takers. (Subject to bias)
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-
The most widely researched and widely used of all personality tests. Originally devloped to identivy emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)-
a projective test designed to reveal a person's social drives or needs by their interpretation of a series of pictures of emotionally ambiguous situations.
Reliability of the Instruments-
The extent to which a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test or on retesting.
Validity of the Instruments-
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
Assessment Strategies
Facilitate or Constrain
- Giving priority to goals of one's group and defining ones identity accordingly.
- Giving priority to one's goals over group goals and identifying one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification.

Alfred Adler
- was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology. His emphasis on the importance of feelings of inferiority—the inferiority complex—is recognized as isolating an element which plays a key role in personality development.
Albert Bandura
- has been responsible for contributions to many fields of psychology, including social cognitive theory, therapy and personality psychology, and was influential in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. He is known as the originator of social learning theory and the theoretical construct of self-efficacy, and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment.
Paul Costa
- associated with the Five Factor Model. He and McCrae have argued that personality is stable, especially after age 30, that it is universal core structure consists of five major domains, and that these in turn reflect a facet-based structure. He has argued that personality is an important influence on behavior- longevity and health.
Key Contributors
Isabelle Potts and Andrew Terry
History and Approaches
Bailee Wallace
Fontaine Boswell
Carson Bennett
Testing and Individual Differences
Isabelle Potts
Andrew Terry
the process of converting one form of energy into another that your brain can use
Signal Detection Theory: predicts when we will detect weak signals
Difference Thresholds
The minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time; increases with the size of the stimulus
Types of Treatment
Ernst Weber:
Weber's Law: for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion; the exact proportion varies, depending on the stimulus
Sensory Adaptation

attacks learning-related disorders, like fears.
Four main approaches:
Biomedical therapies
involve medication, like schizophrenia.
Psychologists in the
biopsychosocial perspective
may try both psychotherapy and medication. This is called an eclectic approach.
when we are constantly exposed to a stimulus that does not change, we become less aware of it because our nerve cells fire less frequently
gives us the freedom to focus on informative changes in our environment without being distracted by background chatter
social psychology
- the scientific study of how we think about fluence and relate to one another
Perceptual Set
a set of mental tendencies and assumptions that greatly affects what we perceive; it can influence what we sense
fundamental attribution theory
- the tendency for observers when analyzing other's behavior to undersetimate the impact of he situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Psychoanalytic therapy
tries to dig down into a person’s unconscious (the part of the iceberg below the water) and root out the causes of the struggles. Then the struggles can be relieved.
Light Energy
a mind at birth is a blank slate...
wavelength: the distance from one wave peak to the next
hue: the color we experience
intensity: the amount of energy in light waves
amplitude: height of the wave
The Eye
the mind is seperatefrom the bod- the body dies and the mind continues
anterograde amnesia
retrograde amnesia
Encoding failure
external events---> sensory memory ---> attention ----> wrking/short-term memory ---> encoding (encoding failure leads to forgetting) -> long-term memory shortage
Interference: proactive and retroactive
Motivated forgetting: repression
knowledge is not pre-existing; the mind stores expiriences
Major areas:
cornea: protects the eye and bends light to provide focus
pupil: a small adjustable opening
iris: colored muscle that dilates or constricts in response to light intensity and even to inner emotions
lens: focuses incoming light rays into an image
retina: a multilayered tissue on the eyeball's sensitive inner surface
accomodation: process in which the lens focuses the rays by changing its curvature
Schools of Thought
The Retina
structuralism: natural thought (Wilhelm Wudnt- atoms of the mind, Edward Titchener- deeper mind, Margret Washburn- animal mind)
functionalism: evolutionary (William James- Darwin ideas, Mary Whiton- memory, Charles Darwin- adaption)
behaviorism: observable behavior (Ivan Pavlov- observtion, John Watson- objectfy, B.F. Skinner- stimulus and response)
Memory Construction Errors
Misinformation effect
Source amnesia and Deja Vu
Improving Memory
rods: black and white vision
cones: perceive color
bipolar cells
ganglion cells: form optic nerve
blind spot: no receptor cells where optic nerve leaves the eye
fovea: clustered by cones; retina's area of central focus
study repeatedly
make the material meaningful
activate retrieval cues
use mnemonic devices
minimize interference
sleep more
test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to find out what you don't yet know
Psychologist Types
Visual Information Processing
Major Developmental Psychologists
"Original" study done by Charles Darwin based on his son's ability to communicate
First official study done by Wilhelm Preyer by studying the learning of his daughter from birth to the age of two
recent developemental psychologists:
Jean Piaget
Lev Vygotsky
John Bowlby
Feature Detection
Sigmund Freud: father of psychoanalysis
Aaron Beck: created cognitive therapy
Albert Ellis: responsible for Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Mary Covers Jones: "mother of behavior therapy" developed desensitization to cure phobias
Carl Rogers: theorized "distortion" and "denial"
B.F. Skinner: studied Radical Behavior, conducted studies in behavior
Joseph Wolpe: theorized Systematic Desensitization

David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel--> feature detectors
specialized neurons in the occipital lobe's visual cortex receive info from individual ganglion cells in the retina
nature vs. nurtuer: controversy over the relative contributers of biology and experiences
developmental: study our changing abilities from birth to death
educational: study influences on teaching and learning
personality: study persistent traits
social: study how we view and affect one another
applied research: study practical problems
industrial organizational: use psychology's concepts and methods in the workplace
human factors: focus on interaction of people, machines, and physical environments
counseling: help people cope with challenges and crises
clinical: asses and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
Prototypes (best example/mental image)
Problem Solving Strategies:
confirmation bias
mental set
availabitlity heuristic
Belief Perseverance
The Effects of Framing
How an idea is presented
The Perils and Powers of Intuition
Intuition is huge
Usually adaptive
Recognition born of experience

Parallel Processing
How a neuron "fires"
Free association
-people speak freely and quickly. They’ll speak their unconscious and a psychoanalyst will be able to decipher it.
Nervous system
doing many things at once
Endocrine System
Wolfgang Kohler (contributed to Gestalt Psychology)
Language Development
Receptive Language
Productive Language
Babbling stage
One-word stage
Two-word stage
Telegraphic speech
Explaining Language Development
Noam Chomsky (universal grammar)
Statistical learning
Critical periods
The Brain and Language
Broca's area
Wernicke's area
Thinking and Language
Benjamin Lee Whorf (linguistic determinism)
John Piaget
Key Terms
– a person stops speaking, which means the person is suppressing something they don’t want to surface.
Schemas (the building-blocks of knowledge
Stages of development:
concrete operational
formal operational
Lev Vygotsky
Gestalt Psychology
how we perceive and organize things based on how we see them
Types of Abnormal Behaviors
Cultural, situational, and location factors are the primary forces to form the mind
dream analysis
– the hidden but symbolic meaning of things in dreams.
Patients may feel strong emotions and
those onto the analyst.
John Bowlby
Psychodynamic Therapies
A person’s childhood experiences are critical as well as
the patient-therapist relationship
It’s important to explore the patient's underlying thoughts and feelings.
They differ from Freud in that they
(a) may speak face-to-face
(b) meet less frequently
(c) for a shorter time period

Anxiety Disorders
anxiety disorders - psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety more prevalent in women

generalized anxiety disorder - anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

panic disorder - an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

phobia - an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity or situation

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) - an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and /or actions (compulsions)

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience shell-shock, battle fatigue (1 in 6 Iraq war veterans suffer from this)

post-traumatic growth - positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
Children have an innate need to attach to a caring figure for the first two years of life
Deprivation from caring figure results in Delinquency, reduced intelligence, increased aggression, depression, and affectionless psychopathy
Interpersonal Psychotherapy
It tries to dig up the cause of their depression. But the real goal is to cut back the symptoms of depression.

The interpersonal psychotherapist tries to do this too, but really wants a more real result. Often the real result is improving relationships with others.

John Bowlby
is a 12-16 session treatment that has been successful with treating depression.
Jean Piaget
Lev Vygotsky
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs- Abraham Maslow (1970) described these priorities based on physiological needs and what we naturally feel as important. We cannot focus on the next part of the pyramid until the need before is met
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health found several predictors for sexual restraint in teens: high intelligence, religious engagement,
Major mental Development occurs during infancy/early childhood
Behavior Therapies
Explores the forming an workings of the mind over a persons lifespan
Robert McCrae-
is associated with the Five Factor Theory of personality. He has spent his career studying the stability of personality across age and culture. Along with Paul Costa, he is a co-author of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.
Sigmund Freud-
created psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process.
Carl Jung-
founded analytical psychology. Jung proposed and developed the concepts of extroversion and introversion; archetypes, and the collective unconscious.
Abraham Maslow-
best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.
Carl Rogers-
among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956.
Physiology of Hunger
Experimenters known as
A.L. Washburn
Walter Cannon
purposely swalled a balloon to monitor stomach contractions to a recording device.
The experiment proved the stomach contracts when one feels hunger.
Duggan and Booth (1986); Hoebel and Teitelbaum (1966)- evidence for the brain;s control of eating located in the hypothalamus
Assanand (1998)- doubts our bodies have a preset tendency to maintain optimum weight
Raynor & Epstein (2001)- people and other animals tend to overeat and gain weight
Emotional Key Terms
Cognition and Emotion
Berridge & Winkielman
Thirsty people were given a fruit-flavored drink after view a flashed face. Those exposed to a happy face drank about 50% more than those exposed to a neutral face.
This demonstrates that we have a radar for emotionally significant information that affects how we feel about following situations

Joseph LeDoux
Used an fMRI to observe the amygdala's response to subliminally presented fearful eyes regardless of how quickly they were flashed in front of them. This demonstrates the "Low road" neural shortcut that bypasses the cortex, for fear provoking stimuli that travel from the eye or ear straight to the amygdala

Case Study:
Expressed Emotion
Asked female/male pairs to gaze at each others hands or intently into their eyes for two minutes and feelings of affection were reported

As shown by William James, who struggled with feelings of depression, you can control your emotions by going "through the outward movements of any emotions we want to experience.

Carroll Izard isolated 10 basic emotions: joy, interest-excitement surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt but Jessica Tracy and Richard Robins believe that other emotions are combinations of these
In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study (or case report) is a descriptive, exploratory or explanatory analysis of a person, group or event. An explanatory case study is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles.
Behaviorists say you’ve learned these things through rewards and punishments. But, just as you’ve learned them, you can unlearn them too.
where we “unlearn” something by conditioning or pairing a trigger stimulus with a new response.
For example, suppose a person has acrophobia—fear of heights.
There are two main types of
counter conditioning
Color Vision
Exposure Therapy
Exposes people to what they try to avoid. It tries to associate the bad thing (heights) with a good thing (like eating). Slowly, the person is moved closer to the ledge or higher up. Eventually, the height is associated with the eating.
Helmholtz trichromatic theory: the receptors do their color magic in teams of three (red, green, and blue)
opponent process theory: three sets of opponent retinal processes--red-green--yellow-blue--white-black--enable color vision
Visual Organization
Humanists believe that people are good-at-heart and try to help people grow to reach their full potential.
The humanist approach is called insight therapies because they both have the person look inside to figure things out.
Carl Rogers
client-centered therapy
where the patient speaks and, through self-awareness, moves himself toward his own conclusion. It's "self-help". The therapist listens without judgment and with as little input as possible.
people tend to organize a cluster of sensations into a gestalt
figure ground: the organization of the visual field into objects that stand otu from their surroundings
grouping: the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups (proximity, continuity, closure)
depth perception: enables us to estimate an objects distance from us (visual cliff experiments)
Binocular Cues
Rogers spoke of
active listening
where the listener echoes what’s heard, restates it, then seeks clarification.

Listen without judging:
Paraphrase what you hear.
Seek clarification to see if you got it right.
Reflect the feelings that you’re hearing/sensing.
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes
retinal disparity: by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance
Monocular Cues
depth cues available to either eye alone
phi phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on ad off in a quick succession
perceptual constancy: perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
color constancy: perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
Mood Disorders- psychological disorder characterized by emotional extremes
Major-depressive disorder - prolonged hopelessness and lethargy two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, along with at lease four other symptoms

Mania - mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

bipolar disorder - person alternates between depression and mania (hyper, over excited) formerly called manic-depressive disorder

Schizophrenia - a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors

Psychosis - a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

Delusions - false beliefs, often persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorder
Dissociative Disorders
- arise from trauma (physical, something horrific) disorders in which conscious awareness becomes seperated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
multiple personality disorder
Should exist:
- allergic reaction with only one personality
- left or right handed with different personalities
- need for glasses with different personalities
Should not exist:
- people think it is acting / seeking attention
Comorbidity with another disorder
Personality Disorders
personality disorder - psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functions

antisocial personality disorder - a personality disorder in which a person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
Eating Disorders
anorexia nervosa - eating disorder in which a person (usually adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight (15% or more underweight)

bulimia nervosa - eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting

binge-eating disorder - significant binge eating episodes followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa

Study of parts and functions of nerves
Individual nerve cells
Parts of the Neuron
Root like parts of the cell
Stretch out from the cell body
Grow to make synaptic connections with other neurons
Cell body (soma)
Contains the ucleusand other parts of the cel necessary forits life
Wire like structure edin in the terminal buttons
Extend from the cell body
Myelin sheath
A fattycovering around the axon of some neuros tht speeds neural impulses
Terminal buttons
End buttons, terminal branches of axon, synaptic knobs
Branched end of he axon
Contains neurotansmtters
Chemicals coained in terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate
The space between terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron
Concept 5.2
Zygote- the fertilized egg; it enters a 2week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Embryo- the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
Fetus- the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Teratogens- agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)- physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
Bo Totten
Understanding Anxiety Disorders
- Learning
- Fear Conditioning
- classical conditioning
- example: US - loud noises; CS - large crowd plus a disturbance that would cause one to be fearful to go into large crowds
- Observational Learning
- we may learn fear by observing others fear

- Biological
- Natural Selection
- Evolutionary - how we have survived negative emotions like fear and escaped them
- The Brain
- amygdala (fear response)-->hippocampus (storing memories)
- emotional memories are strong memories

Somatoform Disorders:
- Psychological disorder with physical symptoms
- numbness
- paralysis
- blindness
- inability to swallow
- Hypochondriasis - abnormal anxiety about one’s health, especially with an unwarranted fear that one has a serious disease

5 levels (axis) of the DSM-IV
Axis I - Is a clinical syndrome present?
- disorders diagnosed when young (anxiety, sleep disorder)
- Axis II - Is a personality disorder or mental retardation present?
- antisocial
- paranoid
- personality - long-term behavior or thought patterns
- Axis III - Is a general medical condition also present?
- illness vs. injuries
- illness - HIV Aids, injuries - Brain damage
- Axis IV - Are psychological or environmental problems present?
- problems w/primary support group
- problems related to social environment
- Axis V - What is the Global Assessment of this person’s functioning?
- highest, current level of functioning

Hyperactivity Disorder - psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity

medical model - the concept that disease, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

Psychological Disorder
- deviant, dysfunctional, and distressful pattern of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors

Psychological Disorder:
- clinically significant behavior or
- psychological syndrome associated with
- Not
- expectable and culturally sanctioned response
- Death of a loved one
- deliberate response to particular conditionspoverty, conflicts

5 levels (axis) of the DSM-IVAxis I - Is a clinical syndrome present?
- disorders diagnosed when young (anxiety, sleep disorder)
- Axis II - Is a personality disorder or mental retardation present?
- antisocial
- paranoid
- personality - long-term behavior or thought patterns
- Axis III - Is a general medical condition also present?
- illness vs. injuries
- illness - HIV Aids, injuries - Brain damage
- Axis IV - Are psychological or environmental problems present?
- problems w/primary support group
- problems related to social environment
- Axis V - What is the Global Assessment of this person’s functioning?
- highest, current level of functioning

Concept 5.3

Habituation- decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
Maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively influenced by experience
Concept 5.5 Part 1
Cognition- all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Schema- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Assimilation- interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
Concept 5.5 Part 2
Sensorimeter stage- in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Object permanence- the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Egocentrism- in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view
Preoperational stage- in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 26
years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Conservation- the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in forms of the object
Theory of mind- people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental statesabout their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
Concrete operational- stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 611 years of age) during which children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Formal operational stage- in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 12 years of age to death) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
A Little Quizlet Action
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