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Organic Chemistry

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Theresa Sawkins

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry Organic Reactions Polymers References Functional Groups HYDROCARBONS Polymers are made up of many molecules all strung together to form really long chains and complicated structures.

The way a polymer acts depends on what kinds of molecules they're made up of and how they're put together. Things that are made of polymers look, feel, and act the way they do depending on how their atoms and molecules are connected, as well as which ones are in the chain. Some are rubbery, like a bouncy ball, some are sticky and gooey, and some are hard and tough. Organic
Chemistry Organic compounds have several different uses. They help in the production of products like food, plastic, explosive and paints. In certain circumstances they can act as a catalyst in biochemical reactions. Organic compounds are usually made up of atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. These types of bonds allow the molecule to form structures in the shapes of chains and rings. Organic matter can usually melt, decompose, or sublime below 300 degrees, and the solubility differs between different compounds. . Organic chemistry is a type of chemistry that focuses on the structure, reactions and properties of carbon compounds. It is derived from fossil fuels,
animals, and plants Organic Compounds have been derived into functional groups and then are further more divided into subclasses. Organic compounds are divided into two main groups: aliphatic and aromatics. Aliphatic compounds are then divided into three groups: alkanes (single bonds), alkenes (double bonds), and alkynes (triple bonds). These compounds can be formed in chains, or chains with branches. Aromatic compounds form in large rings with conjugated double bonds. -Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms in its molecular structure. There are two different kinds of hydrocarbons:
Aliphatic and Aromatic Aliphatic hydrocarbons are compounds that have a structure based on straight or branched chains or rings of carbon atoms. There are four different kinds of these hydrocarbons: Alkane, alkene, alkyne and cyclic. Physical Properties of hydrocarbons:
non- polar due to the similar electronegativities of C and H and their
intermolecular force are weak van der waals Organic Halides Naming: Shorten the halogen name and treat it as a hydrogen attached to the carbon chain. Use the appropriate suffix to indicate bond type, and use the same numbering systems as hydrocarbons to indicate where the halides are attached

Polarity: Halides are more polar than hydrocarbons because halogens are more electronegative than carbon and hydrogen atoms. Carbon-halogen bonds are more polar than carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Boiling Point: Higher boiling point than hydrocarbons

Solubility: The increased polarity makes halides more soluble in polar substances because “like dissolves like”

Preparing: Organic halides are produced by a halogenations reaction of hydrocarbon. This involves a hydrocarbon and a halide. Organic halides can also undergo an elimination reaction with a hydroxide ion to return back to an alkane.

Bonding: Dipole-dipole, london dispersion

Functional Group: R’-O=R’

Naming: Add –oxy prefix to the smaller hydrocarbon group and attach it to the larger chain. “short-oxy-long”

Polarity: Polar carbon-oxygen bonds and the v-shaped C-O-C group make ethers more polar hydrocarbons, but less polar than alcohols because the lack an –OH group. This means they are unable to hydrogen bond.

Boiling Point: Slightly higher boiling point than their analogous hydrocarbons, but a lower boiling point than their analogous alcohols.

Solubility: Can readily mix with polar and non-polar substances

Other Properties: They are also un-reactive because of their single strong covalent C-O bond.

Preparing: Two alcohols react in a condensation reaction. An ether can also undergo a dehydration reaction to return back to two alcohols

Bonding: london dispersion forces Ethers Functional Group: C=0 (carbonyl group)

Naming: Change the ending of the acid the ketone is formed from, from –oic to –oate. Name the single bond first

Polarity: Ketones lack an –OH group, so they cannot hydrogen bond. Therefore, they are less polar than their parent alcohols

have a lower boiling point than their parent alcohols.

Solubility: Less soluble in water than their parent alcohols

Preparation: Condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and a secondary alcohol. Ketones can also undergo hydrogenation to go back to a secondary alcohol and a carboxylic acid

Bonding: Dipole-dipole, london dispersion Ketones Amides are weak bases

Functional Group: amide

Naming: first part of name derived from the amine, add –amide suffix

Polarity: Amides with nitrogen bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms are more polar than amides with more attached alkyl groups

Boiling Points: Amides with nitrogen bonded to hydrogen atoms have higher boiling points than those with more attached alkyl groups

Solubility: Relatively insoluble in water

Preperation: Condensation reaction of an amine and carboxylic acid. Amides can undergo hydrolysis reactions to return back to an amine and a carboxylic acid

Bonding: hydrogen bonding, london dispersion, dipole-diople Amides Functional Group: NO2

Properties: highly explosive

Boiling Point: relatively high boiling point

Preperation: reaction between a hydrocarbon and nitric acid

Solubility: barely soluble in water

Bonding: dipole-dipole, london dispersion Nitrates Naming: add suffix -thiol to the name of the hydrocarbon chain

Boiling Point: Lower boiling point than parent

Solubility: less soluble in water than parent alcohol

Polarity: low polarity

Functional Group: SH

Bonding: hydrogen bonding, london dispersion Thiols Naming: treat the hydrocarbon chain as a branch off of the phosphate group, and use the suffix "phosphate". Example: methylphosphate

Polarity: more polar than parent hydrocarbon

Boiling Point: High boiling point

Solubility: soluble in water

Bonding: london dispersion

Functional Group: POx Phosphates This project by Theresa Sawkins, Maddie Trudeau, Rhianna Rogers, Kaitlin Sparkman and Olivia Boucha involves the basic knowledge of Organic Chemistry. The goal is to review the topics covered in a grade twelve Chemistry class. This has been done by informing the reader of hydrocarbons, functional groups, organic reactions and polymers. It describes the way of naming organic molecules, forming molecules through certain reactions, as well as explaining why they act the way they do. Throughout the Prezi, relevance in society and detail processes of organic chemistry is mentioned. Esters Naming: First part of name comes from the alcohol and has suffix -yl; second part of the name comes from the acid, and the the suffix is changed from -oic to -ate
Polarity: Less polar than parent alcohols because there is no -OH group, but more polar than hydrocarbons
Boiling point: Lower boiling points than parent alcohols
Solubility: Less soluble in water than parent alcohols
Preparing: Condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
Other: Esters are gases at room temperature, which is why we detect their odours Detailed Process- Sucralose
By: Rhianna Rogers
Sucralose was discovered in 1976 by scientists from Tate and Lyle who worked with other researchers at Queen Elizabeth College. It was discovered by Leslie Hough and an Indian chemist named Shashikant Phadnis. They were testing chlorinated sugars as chemical intermediates, when Shashikant Phadnis was told to test the powder, but misunderstood and heard "taste" the powder. When he tasted the powder he realized it tasted extremely sweet! They then worked with Tate and Lyle for about a year before coming up with the official molecular formula: C12H19Cl3O8, and official chemical name: 1,6-Dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl 4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside. This product was marketed as "Splenda" and was first approved for use in Canada in 1991. Today it is used around the world as a common artificial sweetener, in more than 80 countries. Aromatics Aromatic hydrocarbons are compounds with a structure based on benzene, which is a ring of 6 carbon atoms. A benzene is the simpliest aromatic hydrocarbon. It takes the shape of a hexagon. A benzene ring has a planar structure, and has alternating single and double bonds. It's molecular formula is C6H6 Structural Diagram of a benzene Naming Aromatic Compounds While naming simple aromatic compounds the benzene ring is considered the "parent molecule" and the alkyl groups are named as the branches attached. Ex. Methylbenzene- methyl meaning one branch, and benzene representing the ring Once there are two or more groups attached to a benzene we must use a numbering system to identify where the groups are. When numbering the branches you can go clockwise, or counter clockwise, but you always want to number the carbons so that you have the lowest number combination. In more complex aromatic compounds we usually name the benzene ring as the branch and it is named as "phenyl". The rest of the naming proceeds as usual.
Ex. 2-phenylbutane Either of these naming methods are acceptable when naming aromatic compounds. Hydrocarbons in Society Detailed Process on Pesticides: Insecticides
By Theresa Sawkins

Pesticides are any substance that is used to prevent, eliminate or control any pest, which will be harmful to crops or animals. The first pesticide ever used was estimated to be around 4500 years ago and invented by the Sumerians. Their pesticide was a sulfur compound to control the pests. Another early pesticide was smoke, which refers to smoking out a crop to eliminate any pests. Typically they would burn straw, hedge clippings, crabs, fish, dung, or ox horn. These are just a few of the many different methods of controlling pests before more modern techniques using chemicals came about.

Around the 1940s the first organic compounds were used as pesticides including: nitrophenols, chlorophenols, creosote, naphthalene and petroleum oils. Also around this time DDT became very popular because it appeared to have little affect on animals and reduced insect born diseases such as malaria. However, in 1946 it was discovered to have a negative affect on non-targeted plants and animals. Today, there are four main kinds of pesticides: insecticides which kill insects, herbicides which kill weeds, rodenticides which kill rodents, and fungicides which control fungi, mold, and mildew.

Insecticides are used mainly in agriculture and include the following: chlorinated pesticides, organophosphorus, and plant toxin derived otherwise known as botanicals.

Chlorinated pesticides are made to target and attack the nervous system of pests eventually resulting in death. The most common one being DDT which has been banned, along with many other chlorinated pesticides, due to its harmful affect on humans. Example of chlorinated pesticide: DDTThis chemical is insoluble in water but is soluble in organic compounds like fat and oil. It is produces from the reaction of chloral and chloral benzene. When the chemical gets inside an insect it causes neurons to fire randomly. This causes spasms and then death.

Organophosphorous pesticides are similar to nerve agents and contain phosphorous which it toxic to animals. It causes contraction of pupils, profuse salivation, convulsions, involuntary urination and excretion, and death. This is due to asphyxiation, which is caused by the loss of all control of your respiratory muscle because of the toxin. Example of an organophosphorous pesticide: malathion This chemical is generally not very toxic but if ingested it can form malaoxon. This is more toxic but is usually cleared from the body in 3-5 days. The amount you would get in your food it too small to cause any fatal harm to the human body.

Plant toxin derived pesticides naturally occur from the plant itself and are extracted from that plant. These breakdown quickly, result in less residue, and have less of an impact on non-targeted insects. Example of plant toxin derived: Neem This chemical contains azadirachtin has a low mammalian toxicity. It causes insects to stop feeding and growing so it cannot change into its next life stage and will die before reproducing. There are three types of alcohols: Primary, secondary and Tertiary.
The type of alcohol differs from the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon that is attached to the hydroxyl group.
Primary have one alkyl group, secondary have two and Tertiary have three.
Another form of an alcohol is called a polyalcohol. This alcohol contains more than one hydroxyl group.
Hydroxyl groups can also attach to a cyclic compound to form a cyclic alcohol.
Naming: An alcohol is most commonly named with the suffix -ol, with a prefix that is based on the longest chain minus the e. It can also be named with the prefix hydroxy- Examples: Propanol or 1,2-dihydroxypropane
To name a polyalcohol, the suffixes -diol or -triol are used to indicate more than one hydroxyl group
Polarity: Larger chained alcohols are less polar than smaller chained alcohols.
Solubility: Alcohols are very soluble when the chain is less than 4. Once the chain equal or exceeds 4 carbons, the solubility of the alcohol decreases. This is due to the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain, as the chain gets longer, the molecule becomes more and more hydrophobic.
Bonding: Alcohols contain H-bonding, dipole-dipole and London dispersion. These intermolecular forces increase in strength as the length of the hydrocarbon chain increases.
Boiling Point: Higher boiling point than alkanes. The boiling point increases as the length of the hydrocarbon chain increases.
*Note* Used in alcoholic beverages. Alcohols A compound that contains a carbonyl group on the end carbon. In condensed form it is written as CHO.
Naming: An Aldehyde is most commonly named with the suffix -al, with a prefix that is based on the longest chain minus the e.
Polarity: Polar molecules due to the carbonyl group present.
Solubility: Aldehydes are less soluble than alcohols because they do not participate in hydrogen bonding. Since they contain a carbonyl group, which is highly polar, it is more soluble than alkanes. Similar to alcohol, the solubility decreases as the carbon chain increase in length.
Bonding: Aldehydes contain dipole-dipole and London dispersion
Boiling Point: Higher boiling point than alkanes but lower than alcohol because there is no hydrogen bonding. The boiling point increases with the length of the carbon chain.
*Note* Used in society as antiseptic and disinfectants. Aldehydes A compound that contains a carboxyl group on the end of the carbon chain. A carboxyl group combines a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group. In condensed form it is written as -COOH.

Naming- A carboxylic acid is named with the suffix -oic followed by the word acid, with the prefix that is based on longest chain minus the e.

Polarity: Carboxylic acids are polar molecules when the carbon chain is small. Once the Carbon chain increases in the length, the carbonyl group and hydroxyl group are outweighed by the non-polar carbon chain.

Solubility: Carboxylic acids are soluble in water, until the carbon chain exceeds four carbons. They are more soluble then alcohols because they can hydrogen bond as well as they have a highly polar carbonyl group.

Bonding: Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole and London dispersion

Boiling Point: Carboxylic acid a higher boiling point than alkanes and alcohols. This is because it can participate in hydrogen bonding as well as it has a carbonyl group. The boiling point increases with the length of the carbon chain because of the increase in strength of the London dispersion and dipole dipole forces.

*Note* vinegar belongs to the functional group of carboxylic acids. Carboxylic Acids A compound that can be looked as H atoms getting replaced by carbon chains in an ammonia molecule. Amines fall in to different subclasses. The type of amine differs from the number of alkyl groups attached to the N atom. A primary amine as one branch, a secondary has two and a Tertiary has three.

There is also an aromatic amine where an amine group is attached to a benzene ring.

Naming: An amine is named with the suffix -amine or is can be named by using the prefix amino. The naming of the three sub classes of amines can be difficult. A primary amine is named by listing the carbon number it is branched off of. For example 2-methylamine. A secondary amine is most commonly named by listing off the length of the branches in alphabetical order. For example: ethylmethylamine or diethylamine. Tertiary amines are named similar to secondary amines. Instead tertiary amines use the prefix tri. For example: trimethylamine.

Polarity: Amines are polar molecules when the carbon chain is less than 6. When the carbon chain increases in size, the molecule is no longer polar.

Solubility: Amines are soluble in water, until the chain exceeds 6.

Bonding: Primary and secondary amines contain hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole and London dispersion. Tertiary amines cannot form hydrogen bonding.

Boiling Point: The three subclasses of amines all have different boiling points, but all of them are higher than alkanes .Primary amines have the highest boiling point of all the amines due to the hydrogen bonding. Secondary amines have a lower boiling point than primary because having the nitrogen in the middle decreases the van der Waals forces. Lastly, tertiary is the lowest because it cannot form hydrogen bonding with itself since it does not have an H atom attach to the N atom.

*Note* Amines are the cause for the awful odour of decomposing animal tissue. Amines Biography of V. V. Markovnikov
By: Maddie Trudeau

Vladimir Vasilevich Markovnikov, a successful chemist, was born in Gorki Region, Russia, in the year of 1837. The date December 25 is an important day to all chemists since Markovnikov introduced many insightful organic chemistry theories. After 19 years of being raised by an officer, Markovnikov left home and enrolled in Kazan University. His love for science landed him a job with Butlerov after he graduated in 1860. He was an assistant in teaching inorganic and analytical chemistry. Meanwhile as he completed a master’s thesis, “Ob izomerii organicheskikh soedineny” (“On the Isomerism of Organic Compounds”) and his doctoral thesis, “Materialy po voprosu o vzaimnom vlianii atomov v khimicheskikh soedineniakh” (“Materials on the Question of the Mutual Influence of Atoms in Chemical Compounds”), Markovnikov created the theory of chemical structure experimentally and theoretically. In 1865 to 1867, he moved to Germany and spent most of his time in the laboratories of Erlenmeyer. When he moved back to Kazan, Markovnikov received a pleasant surprise of being promoted to the chair of chemistry at Kazan University. However, in 1871, he resigned and was quickly requested to join the University of Odessa as well as Moscow University. He decided to improve his teachings of chemistry in Moscow by creating his own school of chemists. His students included: I. A. Kablukov, M. I. Konovalov, N. Y. Demyanov, D. N. Pryanishnikov, A. E. Chichibabin, A. A. Yakovkin, and N. M. Kizhner. In 1893, he resigned from the chair of chemistry but retained a part of the laboratory he created. Markovnikov's first huge scientific discovery was after he devoted himself to hydrocarbons for 25 years. In his research, he studied the composition of the salts of the

southern Russian bitter-salt lakes and the Caucasian sources of mineral waters, and methods and materials for testing railroad ties. On the side of his research, Markovnikov also studied the history of chemistry.

The most important breakthrough Markovnikov has obtained was when he created the theory of structure and the chemistry of petroleum and alicyclic compounds. He tested certain conclusions, important in the first stage of structural theory and, concerning the existence of isomers in a series of fatty acids. Markovnikov developed certain rules to Butlerov’s theory of the mutual influence of atoms.

Markovnikov dedicated many hours to organic chemistry. He recognized that tertiary hydrogen atoms and hydrogen atoms in the position to a carboxyl group are more active than hydrogen atoms in other positions. He was also the first to state the rule that when molecules of water or hydrogen halide are obtained from alcohols or alkyl halides, the separation occurs between them and the two neighboring atoms of hydrogen. The most commonly known theory for all chemistry students is Markovnikov’s rule: “When a hydrogen halide or water is added to an alkene or alkyne, the hydrogen atom bonds to the carbon atom within the double bond that already has more hydrogen atoms” (Kessel et al., 2003, 26).

Unfortunately, after a successful 67 years of life, Markovnikov passed away on February 11, 1904. He spent his last years in Moscow, Russia, dedicating his life to chemistry. He provided the scientific world with an unbelievable amount of knowledge that has advanced our world today. Density: lighter than water and insoluble in water. Like dissolves like so will dissolve in non-polar substances. Solubility in water:
because like dissolves like the polar water will not dissolve hydrocarbons, as they are largely non-polar. Boiling point:
the boiling point gets increasingly larger as the number of carbons increases. This is because the more carbons added to the main chain the harder it would be to pull apart, as the intermolecular forces will grow stronger. Reactivity:
fairly unreactive due to their stable C bonds and therefore cannot be easily pulled apart. Physical state: at room temperature a 2+ carbon chain will exist as a gas, a 5+ carbon chain will exist as a liquid, and a 15+ carbon chain will exist as a solid. Differences in properties of Alkynes:
Boiling point: slightly higher than alkanes and alkenes because of the triple bond. This would make it harder to pull apart. Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes and Cyclic Alkane is a hydrocarbon with only single bonds between carbon atoms. Example: ethane C2H6 When there is a hydrocarbon branch attached to the main structure or chain of a molecule it is called an alkyl group. Alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon−carbon double bond; general formula, CnH2 Example: ethene C2H4 Alkyne is a hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon−carbon triple bond; general formula, CnH2n-2Example: ethyne C2H2 Cyclic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon whose molecules have a closed ring structre. Prefix IUPAC name Formula Alkyl group Alkyl formula
meth methane CH4 methyl CH3 eth ethane C2H6 ethyl C2H5 prop propane C3H8 propyl C3H7 but butane C4H10 butyl C4H9 pent pentane C5H12 pentyl C5H11 hex hexane C6H14 hexyl C6H13 hept heptane C7H16 heptyl C7H15 oct octane C8H18 octyl C8H17 non nonane C9H20 nonyl C9H19 dec decane C10H22 decyl C10H21 Naming Suffixes: when dealing with alkanes the suffix will be ane, when dealing with alkenes the suffix will be ene, and when dealing with alkynes the suffix will be yne. Steps for naming branched alkanes:
Step 1: Identify longest carbon chain
Step 2: Number carbon atoms (start with end that is closest to a branch)
Step 3: Name each branch and identify location (name with lowest numbers possible)
Step 4: Write IUPAC name: (number of location)-(branch name)(parent chain)
Step 5: When there are multiple branches: list in alphabetic order. Note: When naming cyclic hydrocarbons, the carbon atoms in the ring structure are the parent chain. The prefix cyclo- is added to the parent name. Steps for naming alkenes and alkynes:
Step 1: Identify longest chain (must contain an alkene or alkyne)
Step 2: Number carbon atoms (begin with end that is closest to multiple bond)
Step 3: the number prior to the main hydrocarbon chain name indicates the location of the double or triple bond. Example: a double bond located between the 3rd and 4th of a pentene is 3-penteneStep 4: the presence and location of a multiple double or triple bond is indicated by the prefixes di, tri etc. Example: an octane with double bonds at the second and fourth C atoms is names 2,4- octadiene. Steps for Naming: Drawing: There are 4 different ways to draw hydrocarbons: structural, condensed, skeleton and line. Structural Organic Process-Urea
Kaitlin Sparkman
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with the formula CO(NH2)2. Urea was a very important discovery for scientists all over the world. Before Urea was discovered, chemists did not believe that organic compounds could be synthesized by inorganic compounds. They believed in the theory of vitalism, which stated that organic compounds are fundamentally different than inanimate matter. In 1828, a German chemist named Friedrich Wöhler created urea by treating silver isocyanate with sodium chloride. This was the first time in history that an organic compound was synthesized in a lab with inorganic reactants, and without the presence of living organisms.
Urea is produced naturally in the body, and is found in urine. It is produced from the oxidation of ammonia acids or ammonia during the urea cycle. The production of urea occurs in the liver, and is regulated by a compound called N-acetylglutamate. Urea is found in the blood, and is also excreted in urine by the kidneys. In very small amounts, it can also be found in sweat. Amino acids that are ingested and not used in the synthesis of biological substances in the body are oxidized by triaminase yielding urea and carbon dioxide.
Over 90% of urea synthesized in the world is used for agricultural purposes. It is used as a nitrogen-release fertilizer, because it has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers. Soil bacteria possess an enzyme called urease, which catalyzes the conversion of a urea molecule into two nitrogen molecules and one carbon dioxide molecules. So, urea fertilizers quickly turn into their nitrogen forms once they come in contacts with soil. Ammonia and nitrate are absorbed by plants, and are dominants of nitrogen, which causes plant growth. Urea can also be used in fertilizer solutions, because it is highly soluble in water.
The other 10% of Urea produced can have many different uses. It is used in the chemical industry as a raw material for the production of various plastics and adhesives. It can also be used to make urea nitrate, which is a highly explosive compound used in explosive devices. It is used in laboratories as a protein denaturant because it disrupts the non-covalent bonds in proteins. It is used to increase the solubility of proteins .Urea is a very good moisturizer, and is in many creams prescribed for severe skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema. Urea crystals can also be used in instant cold packs. Urea can be found in many other commercial products as well such as whitening toothpaste, dish soap, moisturizers, rock-salt, and animal feed.
Approximately 100,000,000 tons of Urea is produced per year worldwide. For industrial uses, Urea is produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is produced as a by product during the production of ammonia from hydrocarbons. The process by which Urea is produced is called the Bosch-Meiser Urea Process, and was developed in 1922. The process consists of two equilibrium reactions. The first reaction is an exothermic reaction of liquid nitrogen with dry ice to yield ammonium carbamate: 2 NH3 + CO2 H2N-COONH4. The second reaction is the endothermic decomposition from ammonium carbamate into urea and water: H2N-COONH4 (NH2)2CO + H2O. Unused reactants can be recycled and put through the process again. The urea produced can be further produced into pills and granules for medical use.
In conclusion, the discovery of Urea was a huge step forward in chemistry. It was the first organic compound to ever be synthesized in a lab from inorganic starting materials. Urea is a very useful compound, and is used by many different industries such agriculture, medical, and industrial. The fact that it can be synthesized from inorganic materials makes production of Urea cost effective and efficient as well. Polymerization is a process where small molecules, monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chain like molecule called a polymer. The monomer molecules may be all alike or they may be a few compounds linked together to form a chain. When there are a high number of monomer molecules together 100 or more the product can have certain unique physical properties such as elasticity, high tensile strength, or the ability to form fibers. The formation of the stable covalent chemical bonds between the monomers sets polymerization apart from processes, such as crystallization, in which large numbers of molecules aggregate under the influence of weak intermolecular forces. There are two kinds of polymerization, addition and condensation. When condensation polymers are formed, it produces a by product such as H2O, HCl or other simple molecule which can escape as a gas. A common example of a condensation polymer is nylon. Nylon is obtained from the reaction of two monomers:

These two molecules can link up with each other because each contains a reactive functional group, either an amine or a carboxylic acid which react to form an amide linkage. Addition polymers are generally made containing a double bond. Addition polymers are not like condensation polymers because addition polymers doesn’t have any by products. If ethane is heated to a moderate temperature and pressure in the presence of an appropriate catalyst, mix will polymerize.

The result of this polymer is a waxy plastic called polyethylene. Polyethylene consists of a long chain of alkane molecules. Polyethylene is currently the most manufactured polymer and is used to make plastic bags, cheap bottles, toys, etc. The formation of covalent bonds that hold together polymer chains is called cross-linking. Cross linking can result in a random three-dimensional network of interconnected chains.

A cross-linked polymer. For purposes of clarity, hydrogen atoms and side chains have been omitted, and only the carbon atoms in the chains are shown. Note that the cross links between chains occur at random.

The products of cross linking generally are more rigid, hard, and high melting points then the same polymer without cross linking. Almost all hard plastics we use in our lives have been cross linked to be that way. Some examples are Bakelite, which is used in many electric plugs and sockets, Melamine which is used in plastic crockery and epoxy resin glues. Detailed process By: Olivia Boucha
The First Man-Made Plastic - Parkesine
The first man-made plastic was created by Alexander Parkes who publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 Great International Exhibition in London. The material called Parkesine was an organic material derived from cellulose that once heated could be molded, and retained its shape when cooled.
Celluloid is derived from cellulose and alcoholized camphor. John Wesley Hyatt invented celluloid as a substitute for the ivory in billiard balls in 1868. He first tried using collodion a natural substance, after spilling a bottle of it and discovering that the material dried into a tough and flexible film. However, the material was not strong enough to be used as a billiard ball, until the addition of camphor, a derivative of the laurel tree. The new celluloid could be molded with heat and pressure into a durable shape.
Besides billiard balls, celluloid became famous as the first flexible photographic film used for still photography and motion pictures. John Wesley Hyatt created celluloid in a strip format for movie film. By 1900, movie film was an exploding market for celluloid.
Formaldehyde Resins - Bakelite
After cellulose nitrate, formaldehyde was the next product to advance the technology of plastic. Around 1897, efforts to manufacture white chalkboards led to casein plastics (milk protein mixed with formaldehyde) Galalith and Erinoid are two early tradename examples.
In 1899, Arthur Smith received British Patent 16,275, for "phenol-formaldehyde resins for use as an ebonite substitute in electrical insulation", the first patent for processing a formaldehyde resin. However, in 1907, Leo Hendrik Baekeland improved phenol-formaldehyde reaction techniques and invented the first fully synthetic resin to become commercially successful, tradenamed Bakelite.
Timeline - Precursors
•1839 - Natural Rubber - method of processing invented by Charles Goodyear
•1843 - Vulcanite - Thomas Hancock
•1843 - Gutta-Percha - William Montgomerie
•1856 - Shellac - Alfred Critchlow, Samuel Peck
•1856 - Bois Durci - Francois Charles Lepag Condensed: CH3CH3 Skeleton Line: \ Cyclic:
a compound with the same molecular formula as another compound, but a different molecular structure. Isomers: Positioning on Hydrocarbon Chains: There are 3 different positions on a hydrocarbon: Normal (primary), secondary, and tertiary Normal:
use the letter n to represent Secondary:
use the letter s to represent Tertiary:
use the letter t to represent. Geometric Isomer There is another kind of isomer called a geometric isomer, which has the same molecular formula and structure but the geometry changes in the hydrocarbons. When hydrogens fall on the same side as each other it is referred to as cisWhen hydrogens fall on opposite sides as each other it is referred to as trans Example: using butyne C4H8 Hydrocarbons are used in our everyday life, all around the world, and are the most used organic compounds. The earth relies on hydrocarbons as important energy sources. Our fossil fuels, coal, and natural gas are made up primarily of hydrocarbons. Methane is a natural gas and is used in home heating. Octane is a main ingredient in gasoline. Hexane is a solvent used in glues. Butane is used in refrigeration. Benzene is commonly used in the production of pesticides, explosives, detergent, plastics, nylons and lubricants. Kerosene is made up of hydrocarbons and provides us with lamp oil, and diesel fuel. Gordon, S. (Unknown). Chemical properties of sucralose. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/facts_5576228_chemical-properties-sucralose.htmKessel, H. V., Jenkins, F. Dr., Davies, L., Plumb, D., Giuseppe, M. D., Lantz, O. Dr., . . . Tompkins, D., (2003). Corrosion. (Ed.), Chemistry 12 (pp. 26). Toronto, ON: Nelson Malone, D. (Unknown).

What is benzene?. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5036284_benzene-used.htmlOphardt, C. (2011, May 28).

Hydrocarbons. Retrieved from http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/HydrocarbonsRuss, K. (2005, August).

Less toxic insecticides. Retrieved from http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/pests/pesticide/hgic2770.htmlUnsworth, J. (2012, May 10). History of pesticide use. Retrieved from http://agrochemicals.iupac.org/index.php?option=com_sobi2&sobi2Task=sobi2Details&catid=3&sobi2Id=31Unknown

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Markovnikov, Vladimir Vasilevich – Dictionary definition of Markovnikov, Vladimir Vasilevich | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary. (n.d.). Encyclopedia.com | Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2830902829.html Unknown. Properties of Organic Compounds Menu. (n.d.).

chemguide: helping you to understand Chemistry - Main Menu. Retrieved January 11, 2013, from http://www.chemguide.co.uk/orgpropsmenuInorganic Chemicals ? AMMONIUM CARBAMATE. (n.d.). Inorganic Chemicals ? Chemical Index. Retrieved from http://www.hillakomem.com/tag/ammonium-carbamate Substitution/Displacement: When one functional group of a hydrocarbon is substituted with another functional group

Addition: One molecule combines with another molecule to form one larger product with no other products produced

Elimination: One molecule decomposes into two separate molecules

Halogenation: Involves the reaction of a halogen with an organic compound. When a halogen is added, a bond is removed

Hydrogenation: A reaction that adds hydrogen atoms to a hydrocarbon

Hydrohalogenation(with hydrogen halides): electrophilic addition of hydrohalic acids like hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to alkenes to make their corresponding haloalkanes

Hydration: A reaction where water is added to a hydrocarbon. An –OH molecule is added to one of the double bonded carbons, and a hydrogen cation is added to the other carbon

Markovnikov’s Rule: When a hydrogen halide or water is added to an alkene or alkyne, the hydrogen atom bonds to the carbon atom within the double bond that already has more hydrogen atoms. “The rich get richer" Sucralose is a white, odourless powder. It the most stable artificial sweetener on the market and therefore, can withstand high temperatures which makes the product great for baking or cooking. It is also stable under a range of pH conditions and has a melting point of 130 degrees celcius. It is soluble in water, and therefore can be dissolved to use in drinks. It is 600 times sweeter than sucrose, twice as sweet as saccharin and four times as sweet as aspartame. It is available tablets and is used as an ingredient in baked goods, desserts, drinks, caned fruits, etc. Sucralose is synthesized by a five step process, starting with a sucrose molecule. The five steps are as follows:
1.Sucrose is tritylated with trityl chloride in the presence of dimethylformamide and 4-methylmorpholine and the tritylated sucrose is then acetylated with acetic anhydride.
2.The result from step 1 is then chlorinated with hydrogen chloride in the presence of toluene.
3.Heat is then added by the presence of methyl isobutyl ketone and acetic acid.
4.The substance is then chlorinated with thionyl chloride in the presence of toluene and benzyltriethylammonium chloride.
5.Lastly, methanol is added in the form of sodium methoxide to produce sucralose.

As a brief summary, three hydrogen-oxygen groups on a sugar molecule are removed replaced with three chlorine atoms.
Sucralose affects your taste buds in the same way that sucrose would, tasting extremely sweet, however it contains no calories. It contains no calories because the body doesn't fully metabolize it. The body does not absorb all of it; most of it passes through the body and exits in the urine or feces.

Sucralose is believed to be a healthy alternative to sugar that is safe for everyone to consume. It is advertised to be healthy for everyone including people with diabetes, pregnant/nursing women, and children. It is safe for people with diabetes because it causes no change in quickening or slowing of blood glucose levels. For pregnant or nursing women it can still be used safely because it is not actively transported across the placental barrier, or from the mammary gland to the breast milk. Since so many children today are becoming obese, sucralose is viewed as a healthier and safer choice since it would reduce their calorie and sugar intake. Some people view sucralose as unsafe because it contains chlorine; however, some tap waters have traces of chlorine as well as other foods/drinks we consume. The amounts of chlorine in sucralose are so small that it really isn't threatening.

However, some environmentalists are concerned about the effect of sucralose on the environment. Since your body doesn't absorb the chlorine, it eventually ends up in the sewer systems. The concern with this is that the chlorine as well as other ingredients in sucralose could harm the environment since the compound isn't broken down. The chlorine may react with other substances to form new compounds which may be hazardous. Another concern is that it could leak into lakes and oceans, where it could harm wildlife and damage ecosystems. It will take years to know for sure if it is making an impact on the environment but these are some possibilities of what could happen! Conclusion In conclusion, creating this Prezi helped us to review topics covered in our Organic Chemistry Unit. It was a very good way for us to review what we have learned, and we also learned many new things along the way. We hope that this Prezi has been educational and entertaining for anyone who has watched it. Chemistry is a very interesting class, and we encourage everyone to take it in the future!
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