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Native American Timeline
Transcript of Native American Timeline
The Anasazi Tribe Mysteriously Disappears. The Anasazi tribe was a tribe of Native Americans, their name meaning "The ancient people who are not us". The Anasazi tribe is thought to have mysteriously disappeared from the earth, leaving behind everything. When found, their homes and all of their possessions were there, along with previously buried bodies. There are three theories as to what happened to the Anasazi Tribe. The first being a drought in which forced the population to leave behind all of their possessions and migrate to other areas. The drought that was previously believed to cause the Anasazi tribe's disappearance was recently found to be extremely less severe than previously thought, not bad enough to drive a whole population out. The next theory is a war in which the Anasazi tribe was wiped out. This has been disproven; there is no record of such a war. The third is that the Anasazi tribe was either abducted by aliens or were aliens who went home after a long stay here on earth. This disapearance was dated to be sometime in the 15th century.
1400-1500- Samuel de Champlain reports seeing Native Americans growing corn, beans, and squash at Saco and up to the Kennebec River. This was the way that many of the Native Americans lived in the North, growing crops. East of this area, the Native Americans were mostly hunters and gatherers. This was the way things were at the time that the Europeans landed in North America. 1410- Many believe that the Native Americans had no contact with outside countries. This is not true. There was contact between the Native American tribes on the northeast coast and the Vikings. Europe had lost contact with North America when Greenland lost contact in 1410. The Native Americans and the Vikings had a relationship marked with conflict, although there was some mutual trading. In search for the Northwest Passage, later in the 15th century, Europe’s seafarers extended the range of their voyage, and eventually this lead to Christopher Columbus’s voyage in 1492. 1492- Christopher Columbus leaves Europe and sails to the Bahamas in search of a shorter passage from Europe to Asia. He instead lands in the Americas and claims the New World for Spain. The legend is that Christopher Columbus believed that he had landed in India, and thus the Native Americans were called Indians. He is thought to have "discovered" America and is celebrated in the US as a hero.
1492- Columbus makes first contact with the Native Americans. Based only on their nakedness, Columbus thought of the Native Americans as an inferior race. Columbus wrote many accounts of the Native Americans. “They all go around as naked as their mothers bore them; and also the women.” Columbus also wrote that “they could easily be commanded and made to work, to sow and to do whatever might be needed, to build towns, and be taught to wear clothes and adopt our ways.” He also wrote that “they are the best people in the world and above all the gentlest.” Columbus seems to have mixed ideas on the Native Americans. 1494- February second, Christopher Columbus began the practice of using Native Americans as slaves. This practice grew rapidly. Many Native Americans were brought back to England and used as slave labor. This didn’t last long, though. Many of the Native Americans slaves died of disease. This was the way that many of the Native Americans died, by disease. It was hard for the Native Americans to learn the ways of slave labor in England, although they were hard workers.
1607- Jamestown is founded by the colonists who were sent out by the London Company. Because of starvation and disease, the original 105 settlers were reduced to just 32 survivors. Also, Captain John Smith is captured by Native American Chief Powhatan and saved by Chief Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas. The well known story today is much different from the story that is actually true.
1616- A small pox epidemic ravages the Native American population in England. The Native American’s were not used to this new disease, and many of them died, while the Europeans (whose immune systems were much more used to these diseases) went mostly unharmed. This slowed down the progress of Native American slaves until it stopped some time later. 1613- The Pocahontas story. The residents of Jamestown kidnapped Pocahontas and offered to give her back if her father released English hostages and stolen tools. April 5th 1614, Pocahontas married John Rolfe in Virginia. She was converted to Christianity and was given the new name Lady Rebecca. There was temporary peace between the England Settlers and the Algonquians after their marriage. John Smith sent a letter to Queen Anne in 1616 saying that Pocahontas saved Jamestown from “death, famine, and utter confusion.” Also in 1616, John Rolfe, Pocahontas, and their infant son, sailed to England. In 1617, Pocahontas attended a court masque with King James I and Queen Anne. March 21st, 1617, Pocahontas was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. Right before sailing back to the Americas, Pocahontas died suddenly of either small pox or pneumonia.
1620- On November 9th, the Mayflower ship landed at Cape Cod, Massachusetts. There were 101 colonists on board. Two days later, on November 11th, the Mayflower Compact is signed by 41 men, forming a government. This form of government set the precedent for many other colonies to set up their own colonies.
1621- In October the first Thanksgiving took place. It was held in the Plymouth colony to give thanks for the harvest after a rough winter. There were 51 Pilgrims who served codfish, sea bass, and turkeys white 90 Wampanoag guests brought venison. Plymouth Colony Governor William Bradford issued a thanksgiving proclamation. The feast lasted 3 days, in which over the years the Native Americans introduced many new foods to the settlers, including cranberries and popcorn. The fact that they ate turkey on the first Thanksgiving is debated. 1626- A man by the name of Peter Minuit bought present day Manhattan from the Native Americans that lived there. The price was a few trinkets and things that were worth about 60 guilders. Many places will tell you that 60 guilders is worth only about 24 dollars. Recently, though, 60 guilders were proved to be worth about 1,000 dollars in 2006. In either case, the Native Americans did not feel “swindled” and Peter Minuit gave what he believed to be about the worth of Manhattan. 1758- The very first Indian reservation in North America was established on August 1, 1758. It was established in New Jersey by the New Jersey Colonial Assembly. It was a permanent home for the Lenni-Lenape tribe. It was established in Burlington County. After many events, the New Jersey Assembly agreed to sell the reservation and give the profits to the remaining tribal members, and now there are only 85 members. 1639- Native American Slavery was still on the rise. In many Native American Tribes, prisoners of war were kept as slaves. To the Native Americans, slavery was a “'rite of passage' or system of assimilating outside individuals into groups rather than a property or ownership right.” Many of the war traditions of the Native Americans were used by the settlers. Scalping was one of the things that settlers had observed from Native American tribes and later used it against them. 1675- Native Americans began fighting the colonists in what came to be known as King Philip’s War when they retaliated against the colonists for the execution of three of their people. They were charged with murder by the English when they massacred colonists at Swansea, Plymouth colony. Wampanoag warriors looted farms and attacked English livestock, and they, along with Abenaki, Massachusetts, and Mohegan Native Americans formed an anti English front. 1700- The Anglo population in the English colonies in America reaches 250,000. This was mostly English settlers. At that time, the largest city was Boston, which had about 7,000 residents in the city. The next largest city was New York, which had about 5,000 residents living in the city. There were countless wars between Native American tribes, the English colonists, the french colonists, and the spanish colonists. The most well know war between the English and the Native Americans was King Philip's War. Sources for Rachel Gelfand: