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fibres and fabrics

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by

Louise Stevenson

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of fibres and fabrics

All fabrics are made from fibres!
Some fibres grow on plants and animals. A fibre is a fine strand that looks a little like a human hair. There are long or short fibres and smooth or fluffy ones. What the fibre is like will have an impact on what the fabric it is made into is like. Fibres How do you make a
fabric? You make a fabric by twisting lots of fibres together, This then forms a yarn and these yarns are then put together to make a fabric. Did you know? It is the law that a textile item must have the name of the fibre it is made from indicated on the product. Fibres There are two types of fibres – those that grow on animals and plants and those that are manufactured. The ones highlighted are the main ones; in blue are the ones you need to know about for your exam. © Folens 2009 Natural Fibres Some natural fibres grow on animals and some grow in the ground... Fibres that grow in the ground are called vegetable or plant fibres - fibres that grow on animals are called animal fibres. Cotton and linen are the most common vegetable fibres. Cotton... Source-grows on plants in hot, wet climates Physical properties-resists abrasion, strong, dries slowly, cool to wear, creases easily, absorbent and durable Aesthetic properties – fibres are 15–50mm long and fabrics tend to have a slightly fluffy surface because of this Uses-underwear, bedding, nightwear, t-shirts, shirts, dresses, jeans, towels, handkerchiefs Cotton © Folens 2009 © Folens 2009 Linen Source – the stem of flax plants that grow in wet climates
Physical properties – strong, resists abrasion, durable, absorbent, dries slowly, creases very easily, cool to wear
Aesthetic properties – long fibres (25–40mm) which give fabrics a smooth and slightly shiny surface
End uses – tablecloths, jackets, skirts, trousers, suits, handkerchiefs
Fabric names – duck, holland, huckaback, crash
Aftercare – can be washed and ironed at high temperatures (best ironed when damp), can be bleached
Other facts – one of the earliest known fibres to man, dating back to the Egyptians. End uses – underwear, scarves, dresses, blouses, flowers, ties
Fabric names – chiffon, satin, taffeta, damask, organza
Aftercare – hand wash in low temperatures as fibres are weak when wet, and high temperatures and movement cause them to break and fabrics look permanently creased, can’t be bleached or tumble dried and should be dried away from direct sunlight, medium temperature when ironing
Other facts – to maintain the long fibres the caterpillar is boiled alive. If it breaks out of the cocoon the fibres are shorter and give a lower quality fabric Silk Source – fibre is from the cocoon spun by the Mulberry caterpillar
Physical properties – strong, durable, doesn’t crease easily, absorbent, warm/cool to wear, drapes well, smooth, shiny surface, damaged by deodorants and perspiration, weak when wet
Aesthetic properties – long fibres give smooth, shiny fabrics Silk They originated from wanting to produce a cheaper version fo silk. Manufactured Fibres...
- Regenerated Fibres are fibres that start from a natural origin. For example wood pulp. The pulp is dissolved in chemicals and then forces through a spinnerete producing fibres which are then solidified. - Synthetic fibres are made from crude oil and coal. When processed, the liquid is forced through a spinneret to produce fibres which are solidified.
Both types of fibres can be engineered to have any shape and be any length, and this gives the final fabric different properties. Elastomerics An elastic fibre that is never used on its own. It can be used either bare, covered or wrapped
Source – synthetic fibre made from crude oil and coal
Physical properties – strong, lightweight, crease resistant, dries quickly, very stretchy
End uses – include sportswear, leggings, jeans, underwear, socks, swimwear and so on
Aftercare – wash and iron at low temperatures, can’t be bleached
Other facts – LYCRA fibre is a registered brand name for elastane fibres Acrylic An elastic fibre that is never used on its own. It can be used either bare, covered or wrapped
Source – synthetic fibre made from crude oil and coal
Physical properties – strong, lightweight, crease resistant, dries quickly, very stretchy
End uses – include sportswear, leggings, jeans, underwear, socks, swimwear and so on
Aftercare – wash and iron at low temperatures, can’t be bleached
Other facts – LYCRA fibre is a registered brand name for elastane fibres Synthetic fibres are ‘thermoplastic’.
This means that they have a low melting point.
This can be a disadvantage as it means you have to use a low temperature when ironing synthetic fibres or the fabric melts.
These properties can, however, be used to permanently set in creases or other shapes. Thermoplastic properties Fabric blends...
The properties of a fabric can be changed by combining two or more fibres together. This is called a blend.
Blending fibres can make the production of a fibre cheaper and it can add desirable qualities to a fibre, e.g. blending cotton and polyester produces a more crease resistant, quick drying fabric.
The most common blending ratios are 70:30 and 50:50.
As well as Polyester and cotton, common blends are wool and Polyester, wool and nylon, cotton and Viscose. The production of both natural and manufactured fibres and fabrics is very damaging for the environment.
Packaging and transportation of fibres and fabrics adds to the environmental damage.
Synthetic fibres are from non-renewable resources which will eventually run out.
Polyester is made from a non-renewable source. It’s production creates greenhouse gasses and uses lots of energy and water. It is also non-biodegradeable so it doesn’t disintegrate quickly in landfill sites and can last for over 100 years.
Plastic bottles can be melted down and recycled into polyester fleece fabric.
Polyester THE
END :) FABRICS
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FIBRES
Full transcript