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Latin Subjunctive Mood

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by

Kenneth Jimenez

on 15 November 2013

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Transcript of Latin Subjunctive Mood

What is the SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
WHGEATON
The subjunctive mood is a mood that expresses:
Unreal situations or actions
Situations or actions that are hoped for
Potential situations or actions
How do you identify the SUBJUNCTIVE FORM
In English it is identified through phrases similar to :
If I were___________ _would_______
I wish I were__________
________ might be _________
English
Latin
In Latin it is identified through the subjunctive form stem endings:
PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE
1° 2° 3° 3°-io 4°
-em -ea -am -iam -iam
-ēs -eās -ās -iās -iās
-et -eat -at -iat -iat
-ēmus -eāmus -āmus -iāmus -iāmus
-ētis -eātis -ātis -iātis -iātis
-ent -eant -ant -iant -iant
active
passive
1° 2° 3° 3°-io 4° -er -ear -ar -iar -iar -ēris -eāris -āris -iāris -iāris -ētur -eātur -ātur -iātur -iātur -ēmur -eāmur -āmur -iāmur -iāmur -ēminī -eāminī -āminī -iāminī -iāminī -entur -eantur -antur -iantur -iantur
IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
1° 2° 3° 3°-io 4° -ārem -ērem -erem -erem -erem -ārēs -ērēs -erēs -erēs -erēs -āret -ēret -eret -eret -eret -ārēmus -ērēmus -erēmus -erēmus -erēmus -ārētis -ērētis -erētis -erētis -erētis -ārent -ērent -erent -erent -erent
1° 2° 3° 3°-io 4° -ārer -ērer -erer -erer -erer -ārēris -ērēris -erēris -erēris -erēris -āretur -ēretur -eretur -eretur -eretur -ārēmur -ērēmur -erēmur -erēmur -erēmur -ārēminī -ērēminī -erēminī -erēminī -erēminī -ārentur -ērentur -erentur -erentur -erentur
active
passive
PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
active
Perfect Stem + Endings↓
-erim -erīmus
-erīs -erītis
-erit -erint
passive
Perfect Passive Participle + Present Subjunctive↓ of sum, esse
-sim -sīmus
-sīs -sīstis
-sit -sint
PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
Perfect Stem + ISSE
+present verb endings↓
-issem -issēmus
-issēs -issētis
-isset -issent
active
passive
Perfect Passive Particple + Imperfect subjunctive of sum, esse
-essem -essēmus
-essēs -essētis
-esset -essent
When is the SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD USED
The subjunctive mood is used in both Latin and English, when one wishes to express...
How is the Latin Subjunctive formed in Latin
To form the subjunctive in the Latin present tense you must change the verb's thematic vowel:
1º -ā to e
2º -ē to ēa
3º -e to a
3ºio -e to ia
4º -i to ia
Then you add the regular active or passive endings.
To form imperfect subjunctive verbs you must take the full 2 verb principle part and add the active or passive endings.
ex) oro, orāre, oravi, oratus
orarem oraremus
orares oraretis
oraret orarent
active
passive
orarer oraremur
orareris oraremini
oraretur orarentur
perfect and pluperfect forms
Going back to 11º and 12º slides...
note bene: The Latin subjunctive does not have future or perfect future tense.
Examples of Subjunctive sentences:
English
-The slave said that if he were freed he would become a famous philosopher.
-I wish I were enlightened
-If the kid were to grow up to be a serial killer his parents would disown him.
-If school was more productive we wouldn't need homework.
-I play racquetball. She wishes I would play football.
Latin
-Si anima sit sed pussilla concordia atomi, admirerer.
(If life were but a mere concurrence of atoms, I would be surprised)
-Cum omnes facerent pensi, dormiebam eram.
(While everyone were probably doing their homework, I was sleeping)
-Rana skiat Anglicum.
(The frog knows English)
-Optem possim expandere cum Latine meus.
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR TIME
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