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Teaching by Principles: The Direct Method (The Natural Approach)
Transcript of Teaching by Principles: The Direct Method (The Natural Approach)
The Direct Method (The Natural Approach) What is...? Method: The Direct Method (The Natural Approach)
Background "Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill."
"Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding."
"The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are 'ready', recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production."
"In the real world, conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful."
Stephen Krashen A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives.The Direct Method (The Natural Approach)
Background Approach: Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings Technique: Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives. Tracy Terrell (1977) A proposal for a "new" philosophy of language teaching It grew out of Terrell's experiences teaching Spanish Classes Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen Joined Forces In elaborating a theoretical rational for the
Natural Approach Based on... Second Language Acquisition Theory The Direct Method (The Natural Approach)
Background Natural Approach : A traditional Approach it is... Based on the use of language in communicative situations without appeal to the native language The Direct Method (The Natural Approach)
Background (Krashen and Terrell 1983) Linguistics and Psychology Stages of Learners (Krashen's View): The re-production stage: were the learners are not forced to respond orally and are allowed to decide by their own when to start to speak.
The early-production stage: promotes short answers and the student have to respond to simple questions and to use fixed conversational patterns.
The speech-emergent stage: the use of complex utterances emerges, for example in role plays or games. The Direct Method (NLA) is based on: Acquisition: Is the natural way subconscious process. Meaningful communication. Learning: Conscious process in which conscious rules about the language are developed. Requires language teaching. The Acquisition Language Hypothesis The Monitor Hypothesis: Conscious Learning can function as monitor that checks and repairs the output of the acquired system. The Natural Order Hypothesis: Certain grammatical structures or morphemes are before others.
Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes. The Input Hypothesis: People acquire language best by being exposed to input that slightly above their current level of competence.
Clues based on situation, contect extralinguistic information to make comprehension possible.
Caretaker speech, slower rate, repetition use Ye/No more than Wh questions to help to be comprehensive. The Affective Filter Hypothesis: Krashen considers the learner's emotional state as a filter that passes, impedes or blocks the input necessary to acquisition.
Affective Variables: Motivation, Self-confidence and anxiety. Teacher's Role To generate a lot of input To create an interesting and friendly atmosphere To select the most appropriate classroom activities based on student's needs. Student's Role Try to understand instead of asking
Imitate the correct pronunciation
Try to express in the foreign language
Interact with the Teacher and classmates in the
See the practical use of Grammar Demonstrate - Act – Ask Questions
Use sentences instead of single words
Let students speaks more than you
Use lesson plan instead of Book and follow your plan
Speak Normally, Speak Naturally, Don't Speak too Loudly and Don't be impatient. Activity Types Reading aloud.
Question and answer exercise.Student self – correction.Conversation practice.Fill in the blank (exercise)DictationParagraph writing. This approach helps students to be an active character in learning process
It states that the student must create their own interpretation of the world’s information and that’s the purpose of education. Is not to teach information, or transfer it, is create situations where the student analyzes, modifies and manages information to understand it better.
In the classroom constructivism is reflected by the methodology used by the teacher. This methodology should be challenging in a way that students can do experiments, solve real problems of the world and discuss all issues that challenge the use of critical think and understand better the change in knowledge, as a learning process. Constructivism Teacher’s role The innovative and constructivist teacher uses a lot of techniques during the learning process.
For example you can:
Encourage the student to make their own questions (inquiry).
Promote multiple interpretations and expressions of learning (multiple intelligences).
Encourage group work and the use of resources (collaborative work). Roles of Materials
Materials from realia rather than text books. Primary aim is to promote comprehension and communication