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Chap 22 sec 2 and 4
Transcript of Chap 22 sec 2 and 4
He expanded social assistance with his Great Society program.
He also increased United States commitment during Vietnam.
Johnson died January 22,1973. Tax Cut Johnson believed that a budget deficit could be used to improve the economy. When the tax cut went into effect, the Gross National Product rose by 7.1 percent in 1964, by 8.1 percent in 1965, and by 9.5 percent in 1966. War on Poverty Johnson grew up in an impoverished area.
The Economic Opportunity Act, passed in the summer of 1964, was created to combat serveral causes of poverty, including illiteracy and unemployment.
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
sent volunteers to help people in poor communities.
Head Start is a preschool program for children from
low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services,
and social services.
Medicare & Medicaid Medicare- provides hospital and low-cost medical insurance to most Americans age 65 and older.
Medicaid- provides low-cost health insurance coverage to poor Americans of any age who cannot afford their own private health insurance. Immigration Act of 1965 The Immigration Act of 1965 replaced the varying quotes with a limit of 20,000 immgrants per year from any one country outside the Western Hemisphere. Social Issues
Engel v. Vitale- The court ruled that religious prayer in
public schools was unconstitutional according to the First Amendment principle of separation of church and state. Griswold v. Connecticut- The court prohibited the use of birth control. Criminal Procedures Mapp v. Ohio (1961)- established the exclusionary rule, which states that evidence seized illegally cannot be used in a trial.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)- stated that suspects in criminal cases who could not afford a lawyer had the right to free legal aid.
Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)- the justices ruled that accused individuals had to be given access to an attorney while being questioned.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)- stated that a suspect must be warned of his or her rights before being questioned.
Miranda Rule- Rule that police must inform persons accused of a crime of their legal rights.
"One Man, One Vote" Apportionment- the distribution of the seats in a
legislature among electoral districts.
Baker v. Carr (1962)- declared that state legislative districts had to be divided on the basis of "one man, one vote."
Reynolds v. Sims (1964)- the Supreme Court held that state legislative districts not based on the "one man, one vote" formula violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Great Society is President lyndon
Johnson's proposals for aid to public education
voting rights, conservation and beautification projects,
medical care for the elderly, and elimination of poverty.
Effects of the Great Society
At first, the Great Society was very successful, until
the bloody race riots erupted in poor areas of cities.
It gave urgency to Johnson's plans for Great Society programs.
Some Americans complained that too many of their tax dollars were
being spent on poor people.
Foreign Policy in the Early 1960's
Section 3 The Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion (April 17, 1961) was
a failed invasion of Cuba by
a group of anti-Castro forces in 1961. Kennedy was informed about a plan that President Eisenhower had approved in 1960. Under the plan the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was traning a group of Cubans to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. The Berlin Crisis Upset by the failure at the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Kennedy was now even more determined to prove his toughness against communism.
Rekindled Tensions Over Germany After WW2, the allies had divided Germany into zones.
United States, Great Britian, The Soviet Union, and France each controlled a sector of germany.
The zones were meant to be temporary but as the Cold War tensions grew the more permanent they became.
The Soviets attempted to cut off access to Berlin on 1948.
They failed as a result of president Trumans Airlift. Soviets made another effort to resolve problems in Berlin on their own terms.
They demanded a peace treaty that would make the zones permanent and cut off th elarge flow of East Germans escaping to West Germany especially through Berlin.
Kennedy feared the Soviets were trying to take over the rest of Europe Kennedy meets with soviet leader June 1961, JFK meets with Soviet leader Nikita Khrishchev, in Vienna, Austria.
The meeting went poorly.
The Soviet Leader made a public ultimatum reguarding Germany
Kennedy felt bullied :(
Berlin Wall Berlin Wall- Barrier built by the East German government to
separate Communist and non-Communist Berlin. Cuban Missile Crisis On October 16, 1962, photographs taken from an American spy plane revealed that the Soviets were building missile bases on Cuban soil.
90 miles from Key West, Florida
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba.
Kennedy's Options 1. Engage in further negotiations with Khrushchev.
2. Invade Cuba
3. Blockade Cuba
4. Bomb the missile sites Kennedy Decides Kennedy ordered United States forces on full alert.
The navy was ready to move, and army
and marine units prepared to invade cuba.
The World Waits The United States was scared of bring bombed.
The naval quarantine went into effect on Wednesday, October 24.
A dozen of Soviet cargo ships were streming toward the blockade.
Then the Soviets ships suddenly reversed direction.
Disaster Avoided On October 26, Khrushchev sent Kennedy a long letter to remove the missiles only
if Kennedy promised that the United States would end the quarantine and stay out of Cuba.
Kennedy publicly accepted the note, which caused th crisis to end.
The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world closer to a nuclear attack.
Kennedy emerged as a hero for stopping what could have happened.
Kennedy and Khrushchev estblished a "hot line" between their nations.
The "hot line" allowed the Soviet and American leaders to communicate quickly incase a furture crisis would happen.
Soviets, Americans, and Great Britain signed the first nuclear treaty.
Limited Test Ban Treaty- banned nuclear testing above ground.
The Peace Corps
Kennedy wanted the nations to work together peacefully to solve problems.
Peace Corps- Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations.