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Global History Timeline
Transcript of Global History Timeline
The Zhou Dynasty claimed they possesed the "Mandate of Heaven", or the approval of the gods to rule over China.
Global History Timeline
By: Jamie Joseph and Lucy Langan
The Neolithic Revolution occurred around 10,000 BCE
The Revolution was when people began to domesticate animals and plants
Because of the new discovery of farming and domesticating animals, people began to be able to settle in one space for a longer period of time
River Valley Civilizations
Indus River Valley Civilization
Aryan society/Vedic Age
Alexander The Great
The Umayyad Caliphate
High middle Ages Europe
Rise Of Western Europe
Spain in the Americas
Monarchies in France and England
The paleolithic age, also known as the "Old Stone Age" marked the beginning of time for human existence.
During this time Humans survived by hunting and gathering for food and other survival needs.
Hunting and gathering caused Humans to be nomadic and move around a lot in order to find new resources to survive.
Humans created the first
Simple stone tools
Sophisticated stone tools
First organized settlements
Creation of Art
More Advanced tools
River Valley civilizations are considered the earliest civilizations in History.
Due to the Neolithic Revolution, humans were able to settle down and establish farming civilizations.
Nearly all civilizations were settled around river valleys because of the fertile soil they provided.
Since farming was successful and dependable, people of the civilizations were able to focus on other things than just surviving. This lead to new ideas and achievements among the societies.
The egyptian River Valley civilization revolved around the Nile River. The Nile provided fertile soil for farming and a trading path for each society along the river. Surrounding the Nile on both sides are huge deserts. These deserts offered protection from outside invaders.
Egypt was ruled by a single leader known as a Pharaoh, who was considered a god. This helped keep order among the kingdom since many egyptians felt inclined to obey the Pharaoh if he was a god. Egypt's government was very strong and centralized. The government also controlled the resources of society.
The egyptians developed their own writing system known as Hieroglyphics. (picture writing)
The egyptians were advanced architects who built many structures such as the Great Sphinx and many pyramids that were used for temples and tombs.
The people of egypt were polytheistic meaning they worshipped many gods. They also stongly believed in life after death.
The Shang Dynasty was one of the earliest recorded dynasty in Chinese History.
They wove fine silk that was later used to trade.
The Aryans were nomadic hunters and herders who originated in Centeral Asia.
The migrant Aryans soon made their way into India and conquered much of the Indus Valley.
The blend of the Aryan society and that of the Indus was the basis of Classical India.
Soon the Native culture and the Aryan culture began to blend
For example the Indus people taught the Aryans about farming and agriculture, but also adapted to the tradition of hunting and cattle herding brought from the Aryans.
Another example is the introduction of the Vedas. The Vedas were originally oral epics passed down through the Aryan society. Since the native people had already developed their own language, they wrote down the epics which later became known the as oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
When conquered, the native people of India were forced to follow the strict social class system developed by the Aryans. The Aryans put the natives at the bottom of their structure due to their darker skin. This structure later developed into the Caster system of hinduism.
Following the Shange, the The Zhou dyansty was the longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history
Contributions to the Classical Age of China
Further centralized China's government
Standardized the spoken language
Expanded Chinese territory through the Yangetze river valley. This expansion added fertile land that was use to farm rice.
200 BCE-220 CE
Following the Qin, the Han Dynasty made many contributions to the classical age of China.
A time of Peace for Chinese Culture
Increase in Trade along the Silk Road
Introduction to Chinese civil service exams
Expanded territories into Korea, Indochina, and Central Asia.
Agricultural improvements (plow & collar)
Water power Mills
Cyrus the Great conquered and established the Persian Empire in 550 B.C.E. The empire stretched throughout the northern Middle East and into northwest India
A strong centralized government who regulated taxes, rules, and laws under one Emperor. Established a strong bureacracy.
The Persian were known for there tolerance for other cultures. They embraced different languages, people, food, traditions ect. This is what made the Persian culture so unique.
Created a major system of roads to reduce time travel throughout the Empire. (kept the empire more centralized)
The Persians also established the first regular postal service.
Built a network of inns along the roads.
Persia was also a the center of the new relgion Zoroastrianism.
Preached the importance of personal moral choice between good vs evil
Focuses on peoples fate in the after life
The Mayans were an advanced civilization located on the Yucatan Peninsula in Central America.
The Mayan civilization was organized into city states that were rules by kings and/or Preists.
Concept of Zero
Advanced Astronomers (predicted eclipses)
Created an acurate calender
Developed a writing system (pictographs)
Polytheistic believe system that worshiped gods based on natural forces (ex. Sun God)
They also practiced human sacrifice
Decline of Classical Empires
At this time many civilizations including China, India, and Rome were experiencing a golden age filled with growth and achievement. But after many years of prosper, each civilization began to decline.
During this time the Han, the Roman, and Gupta Empires experienced many of the same issues which resulted in the fall of all three classical Empires
Cause for decline
Over expansion (decentralization)
Corrupt bureaucratic members and/or local leaders
Increasingly high taxes
Population decline due to new diseases and epidemics
Decline in trade
Lack of motivation to improve intellectually/creatively
Islam was founded in the year 622 CE by the prophet Muhammad.
-Islam is a monotheistic believe system that believed in one god, Allah.
-Followed the holy scriptures of the Qur'an
-Must follow the five pillars
Faith (only one god Allah)
Prayer (pray 5 times daily)
Fasting during the month of Ramadan
The Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Born and raised in the city of Mecca. Experienced revelations believed to have come from the archangel Gabriel, where he was told there was only one god, Allah.
Spreading of Islam-
Muslim leaders used Military conquest to spread the religion of Islam.
Arab Peninsula is united under
Islamic dynasty conquers and overthrows Persian empire
Later in the 600s
Muslim armies reach Morocco, Iberian peninsula, NW India ect. to spread Islamic faith
Since the religion of Islam dominated much of the Middle east and trading was primary done through the middle east, Islam spread very quickly to other cultures. Also, Muslim traders usually would usually only trade or prefer to trade with other muslims, making it common among merchants to convert to Islam.
Unhappy Muslims split off to form a new "better" caliphate
Found a leader in Abu al-Abbas
Over threw Umayyads
Took power in 750 C.E.
Moved capital to Baghdad
Foreign invaders attacked (Mongols) and took over Baghdad
Low Middle Ages
Beggining of French Revolution
After the fall of the Han dynasty, China was sent into a unorganized state filled with regional kingdoms and nomadic invaders. This chaotic time came to an end when the Yangdi emperor of the new Tang dynasty reunited China.
"Flying money" for long distance trade (credit card)
New ships (junks) for transoceanic trade.
Large Canal system
In the year 960 CE the Tang dynasty became weak due to nomadic invaders in the north.
Even though the Confucian belief system was popular among the people and used in the government, Buddhism became widely accepted by Tang rulers.
The Song dynasty took over China in 960 CE. The song was a much smaller weaker dynasty in military terms, however was able to make many great achievements.
-Weak military= Paying tribute to the Khitan (nomadic tribe) to prevent invasion.
Neo-Confucianism: A blend of Confucian and Buddhist beliefs.
Overseas trade flourished
Around 4000 BCE - 900 BCE
Mesopotamia means ("land between two rivers")
Located in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Fall of Empire
Cunieform (from the influence of Sumerian Invaders)
Ziggurats (advanced architecture/towers)
Code of Hammurabi
The Korean peninsula between mainland China and the Islands of Japan and Vietnam acted like a bridge where Chinese culture spread across the "bridge" to the islands.
This was known as
Religion (Buddhism & Confucianism
Civil Service exams
Farmed by slaves
Men dominated public and family life. They were allowed to sell their wives and children into slavery in order to pay off debts
Women had none to very limited power
The Tang dynasty defeated the people of Korea, making them pay tribute to the Dynasty to protect them from further Chinese rule.
After the Roman Empire fell, The Western half of Europe entered a period of chaos known as the Middle Ages
Loosely organized decentralized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their large land among lesser lords. Problems in the government occurred between church and state. This became a problem because monarchs thought they ruled over priests and priests thought otherwise
Relationship between landlords and peasants that stated peasants would maintain the farms in return for protection from the lords/kings
Little intellectual activity, mostly laboring on the fields.
In order to limit the power of the king, England created a second branch known as parliament. Parliament is made up of the house of Lords and the house of Commons. They are responsible for voting on laws, deciding on taxes, and keep an eye on the king.
After the holy wars, western Europe was re-introduced to the outside world. This is what sent Europe into the High Middle ages.
Transition from regional kingdoms to centralized monarchies (nation states)
Rise of Universities
Participation in World Trade
Growth of Banking
New military techniques
During this time Western Europe was making their come back both intellectually and politically
Islam vs Christianity
A series of Wars between two major belief systems
The middle east (Holy land)
Both the religion of Islam and Christianity fought for control over the "Holy Land" in the Middle East. Both religions believed it was their god given right to have control over the Holy Land.
Many lives lost
Aided the spread of the Plague
Reintroduced western Europe to the rest of the world
Increase in World trade
Nomadic invaders who seized control of Russia, Persia and China
Serfdom (peasants gave up land in exchange for Mongol protection)
Became a tribute empire ($=Moscow success)
Mongols isolated Russia from the West (missed out on renaissance)
Russia becomes head of orthodox church
800,000 people killed
Ended Islamic golden age
Chinese couldn't learn Mongol's written language.
Mongols could not marry Chinese
Mongols were in charge of gov.
Mongols were higher on social scale.
PAX MONGOLIA- Time of peace and prosperity
Strong leader-Kublilai Khan
Embraced Different religions
Women's rights increased
Trade with west via silk road increased tremendously
The Renaissance was a time of intellectual and cultural achievement.
The Renaissance originated in Italy, where people began to rediscover, study, and appreciate the Greco-Roman World
During this time...
People began to understand the Human mind and Body
The heliocentric Model was created and improved
The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg
Classical art and Literature was produced
People began to question religion & the church
Nomadic invaders known as the Aztecs took over the Toltec Empire
The Aztecs established there capital city on the island of Tenochtitlan in the lake of Texcoco. The people of the Aztec empire created floating gardens to farm crops (chinampas). The island had canals and raised roads built to for transportation. They also built bridges to the mainland that could retract when under attack.
One emperor who ruled over the entire empire but set up city states with regional rulers who reported back to him.
Strong and powerful army that was primary the dominant force of Central Mexico. The Aztecs conquered many neighboring tribes which led to the set up of a tributary empire.
Government regulated market place that participated in regional and long distance trade. Trade records were kept by the use of picto writing
Polytheistic belief system that worshiped gods of nature. Practiced human sacrifice.
Took control of the Caribbean in 1493 by colonizing Santo Domingo, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Panama
Conquering the Empires
Hernan Cortes invades and conquers Aztec Empire
Francisco Pizzaro invades and conquers the Incan empire
Reasons for conquer
Gained Indian Allies who were also enemies with the large empires
Superior weaponry (guns, horses, cannons)
European diseases (smallpox)
Spain was able to govern the colonies due to the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Ecomienda system- granted Spanish landholders to enslave natives
Hacienda System- required natives to work and produce crops for the wealthy
Social Structure Changed:
Peninsulares (born in Europe)
Creoles (European born in America)
Mestizos (mix of European & Native)
Mulatos (mix of European & African)
Imported Silver from the mines in America. Silver resulted in growth of Spain's Economy $$$$
Spain was able to send over Catholic Missionaries to Spread Christianity
Sponsored portuguese explorer to sail around tip of Africa in the year 1488 CE. They Set up trading post at the tip of Africa (cape good hope), here they were able to export slaves to America. (part of the triangle trade)
Portugal was also able to colonize Peru and Brazil.
Brazil was settled in the year 1532 and was used for sugar plantations and gold mines. The portuguese used african slaves to maintain and work the fields and mines.
After the mongols left in 1480 CE, Russia turned into to an Absolute monarchy in hopes to grow both intellectually and culturally.
Ivan IV (Ivan the terrible)
Grandson of Ivan III
Strengthened the Gov
Gave land away to nobles in exchange for military protection
Became unstable (killed his son)
A former german monk, Martin Luther disagreed with the selling of indulgences and nailed the Ninety five theses to the Wittenburg church. The thesis stated the only way to enter heaven was through salvation.
Martin Luther was excommunicated thus initiating the split
1517 CE Catholic priests began to sell indulgences to finance the restoration of St peter Basilica in Rome.
The pope refused to annul Henry VIII marriage
Henry split off from the catholic church causing Europe to finally recognize Protestantism.
Results of Protestant Reformation
A lack of natural protective barriers
Vulnerable to invasion
Encouraged love between husband and wife
Improved women's status
Strengthened Authority of the monarch
Frequent conflicts among local Sumerian kings over water and property rights weakened the city-states
Power eventually fell to the Akkadians and
Mesopotamia was dominated
Did away with the selling of indulgences
preserved other traditional catholic beliefs
Established Jesuit order to help out with missionary and educational work
1517 – 1648 CE
Along the Indus River
2500 BCE to around 1500 BCE
Present day Pakistan
The scientific Revolution lead to a revolution in Human thought and reason
Active traders with Sumer by way of the Persian Gulf
The Enlightenment was a movement where people believed Humans were naturally good and could better themselves through education and reason.
During this time...
The Rich soil from the river allowed people to domesticate animals and farm
Taken over by the Aryans around 1500 BCE, causing the Indus civilization to blend cultures with the Aryans. Many aspects of this culture transferred into the future course of Indian History
Childhood was recognized as a separate stage of growth
Encouraged marriage based on love
Political Philosophers wrote of the importance of the government protecting the natural rights of humans (social contract)
Criminologists advocated the rehabilitation for criminals
First encyclopedia was published
200 BCE-220 CE
After a period of warring times between the states, the Qin replaced the Zhou dynasty of China
Chinese territory expanded southward towards northern Vietnam
A defensive wall known as the Great wall was started during this period
Weights, measures, and coinage were standardized
A common written language was standardized
The manufacture of silk cloth was encouraged
New roads constructed
Vedic and Epic ages formed the basis of classical India along with Aryans
A prominent state called Magadha soon became most powerful
830- 1235 CE
Gold and Salt trade=$$
Women had high status
Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in the bible.
Christians believe that Jesus is the son of God and the Messiah
Wealthiest of all kingdoms
Many gold mines
Monarchy with strong bureaucracy
Hinduism can be traced to the
Indus Valley civilization
sometime between 4000 and 2500 BCE. It is believed to be a
religion, and the basis of Hinduism is the belief in the
unity of everything
. This totality is called Brahman. The purpose of life is to realize that we are part of God and by doing so we can leave this plane of existance and
Extremely large Islamic empire
Monarchy with royal court
Powerful Army (collected tribute from neighboring tribes)
Huge trade network
The nomadic Bantu speaking peoples of Africa influenced the kingdoms of Africa by spreading ideas, technology and language
Buddhism developed out of the
teachings of Siddhartha Gautama
who, in 535 BCE, reached
and assumed the title Buddha. Buddhists believe in
and that one must go through cycles of birth, life, and death. After many such cycles, if a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can
India was divided into sixteen states around 600 BCE
A boarder state was set up by Alexander the Great called Bactria
Chandragupta soon after founded the Mauryan dynasty
Mauryan rulers were the first to unite mostly all of India
The Zhou dynasty produced many philosophers, one being Confucius. Confusions was the founder of the religion and wrote the book of Analects, the holy book of Confucianism.
Ashoka, the leader of the Mauryans, united all of India (except for the Southern tip) and improved it in many ways
Following the Mauryans, the Gupta Empire of India experienced a golden age of culture and power
Embraced Hinduism while tolerating Buddhism
Less centralized rule
More centralized rule
Embraced Buddhism while tolerating Hinduism
Concept of zero
Development of decimal system
Strengthened trade between East and Southeast Asia
Constructed road systems and trading stops under Ashoka through teachings of Chandragupta
He was born in Greece and taught by Aristotle
He was known as a great conqueror and creator of cultural diffusion
Why was Alexander Great?
Why was he an important historical figure?
He conquered Persia, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Bactria, and the Punjab
He fought at the front of his armies
He was ahead of his time in that he was excepting of many cultures
He culturally diffused the whole area that he ruled over. Blending cultures caused a golden age in almost all of the civilizations
United almost all of the major civilizations, leading to many advancements, and blending of cultures, religions, and concepts
Personal standards and tradition was the key to a successful for government.
In order to have a stable government there has to be educated officials (civil service exams)
He also emphasized the importance of respect thus creating filial piety
This religion believed....
Chinese Philosopher named Lao-zi founded the religion of Daoism.
Daoism emphasized the importance of balance in nature;
Yin- female submissive
Yang- male assertive
Daoism preaches political involvement and education were unnecsarry
The way of virtue
Daoism preaches political involvement and education were unnecessary in government. They believed natural balance of the universe would solve everything.
He caused the largest cultural exchanges, trade explosions, and overall golden ages that had ever occurred
Alexander was the man who united the world, causing an explosion in trade, advancements, and blending of religions
Founded by Abraham and Moses.
Originated in the middle east
Follow the 10 commandments
Believe prophets are sent by and can talk to God
Holy book is the Torah
He united many cultures that had never been in contact
Greece was culturally developed through Persia and multiple societies in the Mediterranean. The Greeks were Indo-European people who migrated to the southern portion of the Greek peninsula around 1700 BCE
Peter the great
Catherine the Great
Opened country to Western influence
Obtained a Warm Water port on the baltic sea
Moved the capital to St Petersburg
Modernized the Russian Justice system
encouraged Western art and architecture
Expanded Russian territory
Due to the Hilly and mountainous geography of Greece, farming was limited, while trading and fishing ports were booming
Ivan III (Ivan the great)
Brought the majority of northern Russia under his control.
Limited the power of the nobles
Adopted Byzantine Traditions
(influenced by Byzantines through trade)
consisted of gods and goddesses
consisted of drama, philosophy, politics, logic, arts, sciences and many others
Athenian Democracy was considered a golden age
Athenians were known to be focused on intellectual advancements
Focused on military and farming tactics
Didn't appreciate logic art or cultural advancements
Athens and Sparta made an alliance to fight in the Persian wars. Later on they had many wars with each other. After multiple years of fighting, Sparta won due to their strong military tactics. Later on, both civilizations fell because of all of the damages they faced from fighting.
Technological and Environmental Transformations
Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies
Regional and Transregional Interactions
Rome became a Kingdom in central Italy around 800 BCE
Rome went through a period of civil disorder after Julius Caesar took power and was assassinated. Following this period (from 45 BCE to 27 BCE) Rome went through a golden age known as Pax Romana
A defendant is innocent unless proven guilty by a court of law
A lot of the culture of the Romans was from the Greek influence
The works of Aristotle and the alphabet are examples of what was passed on from Greece to Rome
The Black Death was one of the most devastating diseases widely spread in human history. It resulted in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and it peaked in Europe in the years 1346–53.
Results of Black Death
European citizens died causing production and trade to slow
Europe's economy crashed
The disease was spread to the rest of the world, negatively effecting those regions
Due to Europe's slowing economy and dark age, the rest of the world was unable to trade and import luxury goods from Europe
Almost 200 million people died of the deathly disease
Spread through rats and flys
The cities were filthy and filled with bacteria during this time
During the time there was no real cure
Doctors tried many things but none were proven to work
Split between the Sunni and Shia
The larger group or belief in the Muslim community
Believes that the successor to the caliphate should be chosen from the umma, or Muslim community, and accepted the earliest caliphs as real rulers of Islam
The smaller group or belief in the Muslim community
Believes that the caliph must be a family member or descendent of Muhammad
The successor of the prophet who united both secular and religious beliefs
When Uthman of the Umayyad family, was assassinated, Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, was appointed Caliph. This is when the split began to be defined.
What was traded during the Columbian exchange? Where was it traded?
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, slaves, technology and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasion regions.
The Colombian exchange united the 2 hemispheres through trade
"Ancient Rome exercises a powerful grip on the imagination of modern man. It was a sophisticated and powerful civilization, which has had a profound influence on all later Western societies."
The Roman Empire lasted around 500 years, and was the most advanced civilization of its time
Its culture and sophistication influences multiple Western civilizations in the future
Advancements in architecture, math, science, literature, astronomy, government, art, and many more were made by the Romans.
Rome went through a period of 200 years of complete peace and prosperity known as Pax Romana. This was amazing because no large civilization had gone through such a long period of peace and good times before.
The Empire surrounded and expanded out from the Mediterranean
Pax Romana Accomplishments
Already in 451 BC they created basic laws which governed them all, laying down what one could and could not do. They wrote them down on
twelve plates made of bronze
, which became known as the Twelve Tables. These were the
first examples of written law
The Roman alphabet is what
most of us still use today
in the western world. We have added a few letters to it, like W, but it is much still the same alphabet used by the Romans.
, baths, walls,
, cities, palaces were all created and mastered by the Romans. They built a world from which later peoples still benefited for a long time to come. Some of their old roads are even still in use today.
The Romans achieved world fame with their
army. It defeated pretty much everybody.
Defendants have the right to confront their accusers in a court of law
Judges have the right to set aside laws that were unjust
Twelve tables of Law
During the age of exploration, Christaphor Columbus (from Spain) was paid for and sent by Isabelle and Ferdinand in order to find a more direct route to India.
Technological inventions such as the magnetic compass, caravel, and astrolabe all contributed to the Age of exploration
Columbus discovered America in 1492
Magellan was an explorer who circumnavigated the globe
The British were in search of the North West passage
Discovery of New Land!
Without the discovery of America or "The New World", there would still be undeveloped land, and there would not have been America's resources to be traded and diffused to other cultures.
America eventually became a large part of the Colombian exchange and slave trade
Finding a new major land base led to many new relations and trade routes
It led to major civilizations that are huge parts of the world trading markets and world relations today
Following the assassination of Ali in 661 CE, the Umayyad family came to power in the Islamic world.
Emphasized Arabic ethnicity over adherence to Islam
Converts to Islam were inferior
Jews and Christians were allowed freedom of worship
Luxurious living for ruling and wealthy families, which often resulted in riots among general population
Umayyad rulers were known for...
Vietnam didn't always appreciate Chinese cultural influence. Vietnam valued there independence at the same time.
Vietnam had different language, villages, women rights, and religious values than China
Vietnam was conquered by the Han in 111 BCE
Under the Han, Vietnam changed agriculture and irrigation techniques, added confucian concepts to theri culture, and extended their family structure
Vietnam people staged many rebellions against the Han. Finally, a major protest in 939 BCE resulted in Vietnamese independence.
Europe possessed the political and financial power to explore the world beyond their boarders through exploration and trade.
Europe began to explore areas in Asia, or of Asian influence. When they learned of the technology of the mongols, they developed these new advancements into their culture.
The printing press
New technology led to more financial success and more trading networks
Without this period of trade, many regions would still lack goods that have eventually become a staple of their diet
This exchange causes North America and many other regions to have a more diverse and large population (slave trade)
The Incan Empire was conquered by Spanish armies during the early 1500s
Integrated approximately 11 million people of diverse culture under one Empire
Unlike the Aztecs, the Incas incorporated the regions they conquered into their empire, encouraging the diversity in their region
Capital city of Cuzco
Worshiped the sun god
Based their economy off cultivation of the potato
Limited the power of King John!
Signed in an effort to reduce tax policies!
Gave English nobility basic rights!
Signed by King John in 1215
The Magna Carta
Medieval England distinguished itself by imposing limitations on the power of the monarchy
In an effort to control tax policies, English nobles forced King John to sigh the Magna Carta
The document later extended to help other English social classes with basic rights as well
Founded my Zhu Yaunzhang, a warlord who assisted in the expulsion of the Mongols from China
Under Ming Rule
Fall of the Ming Dynasty
Position of scholar-gentry was restored
The Confucian-based civil service exam was restored and expanded
Neo-Confucianism increased its influence
Between 1405 and 1423, Zheng He led many explorations for trade and expansion
This was a statement and reminder to the Eastern hemisphere that China was back, and stronger than ever
Explored Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Persian Gulf
Stopped exploring because it was too costly
Ruled by incompetent rulers
The maintenance of dams, dikes, and irrigation systems was forgotten
Nomadic people tried to take over, and China felt pressure along the Great Wall
In 1644, the Jurchen, or Manchus (nomadic people) took over the Ming, and the new Qing dynasty ruled until the twentieth century
In the Sixteenth century, monarchies in Europe expanded their power dramatically
Some Characteristics of The Monarchies
Maintenance of strong armies
Establishment of elaborate bureaucracies
High taxes to support the frequent wars in Europe
Divine right caused kings to have the right to rule through god
Lived in Palace of Versailles
King of France
Later on, the Glorious Revolution occurred (1689) causing the parliament to gain more power and the monarchy to have less.
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
The Mongol invasion of eastern Antolia in 1243 led to the collapse of the Seljuk Turks and the rise of the Ottomans
Empire established around Antolia
In 1453, The Ottomans gained control of Constantinople
The Hagia Sophia was then transformed into a elaborate mosque
Created an imporved defensive system of Constantinople
Focused on warfare
Late seventeenth century
Army became weak
Taxes became heavier
Fell behind in warfare technology
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a revolution of scientific thoughts and advancements occurred
Abandoned the geocentric theory and proved that the sun was the center of the universe
Discovered the elliptical pattern of planetary motion
Used a telescope to confirm the theories of Copernicus and to study planetary motion
Established the basic principles of motion and described the forces of gravity
Scientist from Belgium
Studied Human Anatomy
Explained the circulatory system
During the 17th century CE, Chinese culture reached Japan
Adopted Confucian thoughts
Adopted Chinese written characters
In Japan, local lords ran their own tiny kingdoms
The small states in which Japan was divided into, were led by Bushi
Bushi administered territories and maintained their own tiny kingdoms
Samurai served these Bushi
, and served the capital to protect the emperor
The rise of the Samurai gradually caused Japan to use fuedalsim
Peasants in Japan became serfs who were owned by the local lord
A series of wars between the peasants and the Samurai
The war resulted in the power of a new family Minamoto
, which had a military government.
Even though the emperor court remained, the the majority of the power remained in the Minamoto family
Japanese decorative gardens
sketches done in ink
Shoguns (military leaders)
Bushis (acquires land)
Samurai (provided military service)
Emperor and Shogunate
The king of France was Absolute
Taxes in France were heavy, and aristocrats and the church did not have to pay them
Commoners were upset
The Estates general voted over the aristocrats having to pay taxes (Clergy, Nobility, commoners). the commoners lost 1-2
Rebellions broke out in the villages
Demands and a bill of rights were made by the commoners
The revolution began
Haung He River Valley, isolated due to mountains, seas and deserts
Strong Bureaucracy made of aristocrats
Metal working (Armor, weapons, bronze tools)
Spoke to gods through oracle bones
Architecture (included geometric shapes and domes)
Wazir-Chief (inner council)
Laws based on Qur'an
Most cultured city of its time
Advanced in Art and Literature
House of Wisdom
Conquered and expanded boarders
Protected trade along the silk roads
Head of the social structures were rulers and elite classes
Industrialization and Global Integration
The Dawn of the Industrial Age
French Revolution 1789 1799
Latin American Independence movements
Muhammad ali takes over Egypt, causing it to be independent from the Ottomans in
During this time certain countries were beginning to Industrialize
In order to Industrialize countries began to change and reform the government, the society and the economy
Industrialization led to an increase of production and transportation which resulted in a huge economic advantage over all parts of the world.
Economic leads and mass production of weaponry, steamships, ect. contributed to huge power advantages for the Industrial Countries
With this power bigger more powerful countries began to imperialize smaller less powerful countries.
As imperialism and industrialization continued even more reforms took place, along with political revolutions.
British Colonial Society in India
Abolition of serfdom in Russia 1861
led to a transition from a previously agriculturally dominant society, to a large industrial power.
The suez canal was built as an effect of Muhammad Ali bringing industrialization, and modern rule.
Spanish American war
mid eighteenth century
The steam engine initiated the transition of manufactoring from home to factory.
Invented by James Watt of Scotland in 1770
manufacturing of goods from home to factories began in the English textile industry
England passed laws and instituited policies that promoted growth
Even though France industrialized, it did it at a much slower rate than England.
Railways were built
Establishment of factories.
Effect on France
Effect on the people
Sped up transportaion of goods and people
Allowed people to travel
Allowed industries to export and import more
Added France to the global economy
Production of tetiles, military weapons, steamships, and iron
Broke down the family economy- Led to major cultural changes
Employed more people
Began to abuse power over the workers
Governed by Tokugawa shogunate
First half of ninteenth century
Arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry
Opened Two trading ports with he U.S
Taveled to Japan for US expedition
Negotiated the opening of two rading ports
Ended isolation for Japan, thus initiation industrilization
Newley chosen emperor named Mutshito, or Meji (Enlightned one)
Ended Japanese Feudalism
Centralized Japans government
Sent samuris to Western Europe and the US to study government, technology, and economics till 1870s.
Created a two branch parliment based on Western models. (1880s)
Affect of Industrailization
Establishment of banks
Modernization of army and navy
Establishment of Industries/Factories
Construction of railroad & Steamships
Heavy Taxes on citizens
Imperialism was a Direct result of the Industrial Revolution
Bigger European countries such as Englnd and France used their industrial background to begin imperialization
Imperialization is a policy to expand a countries influence and power over weaker countries
Following the Industrial Revolution, European colonies had...
military advantage due to production of superior weapons
Steamships to travel unnavigable rivers
Preventable medicinces against diseaes such a malaria
American colonies desire for independence because of...
High Taxes imposed on colonies due to the $ loss of the seven years war
Resentment to Brittish trade control over colonies
Restrictions to move into frontier areas
Colonial Rebels unite to fight the Brittish
Issued a Declaration of independence (1776)
organized a formal army
Allied with the French
Fought a series of battles against the Brittish
American colonies gain indepence from Brittian (1789)
Established a Constitution;
Seperation of powers
System of checks and balances
Bill of Rights
Colonized areas began to rebel against their "mother countries" and became their own idependent area
Inspired by the revolutions in Colonial America and France
Free black slave Toussaint L'Overture led slave rebellion against France.
Tension and division between freed colonists due to the French revolution left room for Hatition slaves to rebel.
The republic of Haiti declared its Independece in 1804
FIRST SUCCESSFUL SLAVE REBELLION IN WORLD HISTORY
HAiti became a symbol of hope and freedom for all slaves
Decline of Qing China
Britian used Indian Opium to trade for Chinese Luxury goods
(equal out trade imbalance)
Backwards in technology, and behind european industrial powers for nearly 100 years
textiles, steal and coal mining
Chinese citizens became addicted to Opium
Trade reversal (China paying Brittian more)
Affected work and function of Families
Emperor tried to block the trade
WAR BROKE OUT
China vs Brittian
Hongkong= British Colony
Trade ports continued to open
Foriegn spheres of influence were established
Promoted trade with Europe
Inability to repel foreign forces
Defeat in Opium War
Russia went through many periods of reform and repression in order to become permanatley industrialized
Scholar Gentry ended rebellion
However later Qing offcials realized change was necissary resulting in the Self stregnthening movement
Empress Cixi ended reform movements
Rulers tried to rid China of foreiners
Uprising in Northern China against spread of outside influence
Eventually ended by European, Japenese, and American forces
A war fought between the Northern and Southern States of the US.
Should the South succeed the North?
trans-Siberian Railroad allows European portion of Russia to unite with the Pacific world
Should slavery be aboloished?
The US should be an indivisable country with a sovereign national government
According to the constituation and our beliefs all men were created equal making slavery inhumane
Slavery is a nessesity to the south's agricultural economy
In favor of succeeding from the North
Abraham Lincoln is elected: Results in war!!!
Series of battles are fought
Slavery is abolishhed
Rebuilding of the US
Factories in Moscow and St. Petersburg
Government improved Russian banking system, and applied high tariffs to protect industry
British annex Cape Town
By the beggining of the twentieth century, Russia ranked fourth in world steel production
Built up the Egyptian military in order to lessen dependence on surrounding powers such as the Ottomans
Brought in European advisors in order to build industry
To fund new industries, Egyptian peasants farmed wheat and cotton for export to European countries for profit
As tariffs were carged on imported goods, Britian objected, leading to a decrease in Egyptian industrialization
Egypt became reliant on lower-priced manufactured goods from Great Britian
Establishment of Cape town by the Dutch peoples (boers) in 1652 sparked European involvement in Africa
During the French Rev. Brittian was able to capture Cape town.
conflict: British vs. Boers
lower class desire for a wider political role
lower class wish for restraints on the power of the clergy, monarchy, and aristocracy
Boers Migrated to interior of Africa
Conflict: Boers vs Bantu
Poor harvests in 1787-1788
European Victory--> Establishment of two Boer Republics
Continued tension= Boer War
British vs Boer
Boer Republic Govs. Unite into Union of S. Africa dominated by Great Britian
Rivalries Between European Countries
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed, leading to chaos for leadership in France, and further attacks from Austria
Robspiere gains power, and makes France crazy
Kills anyone who supports christianity or a monarchy
Robspiere is killed by the people, and France goes through a period of wars and chaos (known as the Directory phase)
Napolean crowns himself emperor and changes France to a meritocracy
Desire for Raw Materials
Meeting of European countries in Berlin, to divide and distribute Africa amoung the colonial powers.
Congress of Vienna:
Meeting in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleanic Wars to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disbutes
Results in a balance of power that prevented Europe from fighting a major war
He takes over all of Europe with a strong army
Uses merit to create a more balanced job system, and this positively affects Europe
Eventually is bansihed , which leads to a meeting called the Congress of Vienna
The conservatives who wanted a monarchy, win the argument
South American Independence
Miguel de Hidalgo called on the mestizos and Indians to rebel against Spain in 1810
After hesitations, creoles joined the force and helped to finally gain independence from Spain in 1821
In 1824, Mexico becomes a Republic
Creole Simon Bolivar centered his movement for independence against Spain in Caracas
By 1822, he had liberated Colombia, Equador, and Venezuela
Jose de Martin emerged as the independence leadrer from Rio de Plata and helped present day Argentina gain independence by 1816
He also assisted in the liberation of Chile
Maroon societies consisted of Slaves that resisted their colonial government fled to plantations and established their own communities in remote areas of the mountains in Jamaica and HIspaniola
Brazil gained independence differently from other Latin American regions during this time.
In 1807, when the French invaded Portugal, the Portugese royal family fled to Brazil.
When the royal family returned to Portugal in 1822, Dom Pedro declared Brazil independent after realizing that it was about to lose its representative oin the Portugese parliment
British influence in India began as commercial activity during the declining of the Mughal Empire
Disruption to traditional African culture
Britian gained power in India through getting invloved in the disputes leading to Mughal downfall, and British control
Railroads, hospitals, roads ect... built in Africa
India gradually emerged as Britians key source for raw materials
African Natives abused for European benefit
The Sepoy rebellion occured in 1857, when soldiers became upset due to riffles being used in their combat, that invloved the supply of animal fat. Hindus and Muslims both objected to the use of animal fat in the guns whcih lead to several hundred people massacred.
Accelerating Global Change
The Newest Stage of the World
Later on, the Indian National Congress was formed, which improved Indian roles in the government using a higher level of education.
Revolution of 1905
World War I
The war started with Cuba trying to gain indepednece from Spain. America felt symapthy for the rebel forces of Cuba, which caused them to get involved.
The growing popular demand for U.S. intervention became unaviodable after the unexplained sinking in Havana harbour of the battleship USS Maine (Feb. 15, 1898), which had been sent to protect U.S. citizens and property after anti-Spanish rioting in Havana.
Spain declared war on America on April 24th 1898, and soon after America defeated Spain with under 10 deaths
The united states gained power over Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico, and overall the war resulted in America becoming a major world power
World War II
THE cold war
the cost of war in europe devasted the economies of European nations on both sides of the conflict
When Germany declared its inability to pay off its debt to former allies (France and Great Britian), the United states also suffered because France and Britian owed money and could no longer pay it
This led to United States economy to fall, and be unable to pay loans to various European nations
Global trade dimenished, creating massive unemployment not only in the United states, but also in japan and Latin America
The Great Depression had many effects on the political dynamics of the world. In the west, new social welfare programs were developed. In Italy and Germany facist governments broadened. Japan increased markets and imperial expansion
The leaders of the movement that brought down the Qing dynasty were Western-Educated reformers who intended to mold Chinese government along Western lines.
The reformers envisioned China free of foreign imperialists.
In 1911, the build up of reliance of China on western loans for railway improvements led to a final rebellion.
This rebellion not only ended the Qing dynasty, but was the end of the Chinese dynastic cycle
Nationalism, Imperialism, & Militarism
Along with these forces was a system of entangling alliances that complicated international relations in the event of war
Immediate cause of war was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Alliance of Russia & China against Japan
Russia's gain of Manchurian territory & port
Central powers included Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
Rivalry to control Korea and Manchuria
Japan built up a superior army
Japan launched many surprise attacks against Russia
Many land and sea battles fought
Russia withdrew troops
Official Russian defeat
Revolution of 1905
Humiliating loss in Russo-Japanese war
Uprising of Russian people against Tsar Nicholas II
Attempt to make a constitutional monarchy
Creation of Duma (parliament)
Unsuccessful at the time
Tsar Abolished Duma after weeks
Sparked thoughts/actions to overthrow tsarist rule
Reduced World Power
Costs of WWI
Inability to maintain social order
End of Romanov Tsarist Rule
Second Revolution, resulted in power of the Bolsheviks (communists)
New Gov. Led by Lenin
Too weak to continue the Rev.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Bolsheviks + Wealthy landowners
US, Japan, Great Britain, France
People apposed the Blosheviks and Lenin
Disagreed with the Gov.
Diaz and Juarez developed economic growth and encouraged foreign participation
These developments however did not benefit the peasants and working class
This caused an uprising and movement for reform
Lasted for 10 years
Resulted in a new Constitution
Limited foriegn investment
Division between Free and Communist Governments across Europe
United states plan to help Europe recover from war.
Provided Loans to European nations
President Truman's policy to Support any countries battling communism
Helped countries such as Greece, turkey, ect..
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Led by U.S
Allied Canada, US, majority of W. Europe
Response to NATO
Alliance between USSR and Eastern Europe
Intensified US-Soviet Rivalry
North Korea invades South Korea
Soviet union & North Korea
South Korea & US
Establishment of boundary line
Tension & Conflict continue to arise between the US and the Soviet Union.
U.S vs Soviet Union
Lauching of Sputnik
Fear of Espionage
Fear of Atomic Attacks
Fear of being outdone
Competition between the two countries in Space exploration
Competition pushed both the US and the soviets to create new technology for Space exploration
Both countries orbitied the Earth
US landed on the moon First!!!!
Cuban Missle Crisis
Czech vs Soviets
Afghanistan vs Soviets
dismantled Berlin Wall
A few Key Events of the Cold War that show the struggle for communist power and the tension between the US and Soviets over Government policies
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
End of Russian Civil War
Lenin in power
5 Year plan
Spread/development of Communism
Communist Reign over Eastern Europe for 80 years
Europeans and United States decided their Colonies where too expensive to maintain.
No peace or prosperity
Disturbance of cultural groups
Germany, Italy, Japan
Great Britain, France, Soviet Union
1939- Hitler invades Poland= start of WWII
1941- Pearl Harbor
US enters the War
US drops atomic bomb on Japan
End of WWII
COST of the War
Killed about 35 million people
Holocaust- 6 mil
Soviet Union- 20 mil
European dominance ended
US occupied Japan
Korea was divided
United Nations was created (PEACE)
China Regained Territory
Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Japan, and later, the United States
Allied powers included `
It was a protest against the Austrian annexation of Bosnia
In the atermath, Germany supported Austria, a declration of war against Serbia Russia defended Serbia with strong mobilized military troops.
The system of European alliances then brought the rest of the world into the war
The united states sold arms to the allies, while U.S. bankers lent money to the allied nations. The U.S. entered the war when they were threatened of losing the land they had gained from Mexico, by Germany. The U.S. contributed additional supplies and strong troops to the allied side, leading to their victory.
Treaty of Versailles 1918
, was a peace agreement signed by the allied powers and Germany. Germany was deemed fully responsible for the war and owed $33 billion dollars; also lost all of its colonies, and had a limited military power
The leauge of nations was created to create international peace
Effects of WW1
An entire generation of young European men was almost wiped out
Italy and Japan are angery that they didn't recieve additional land
The Ottoman empire is reduced to the area of present day Turkey
China became a Japnese protectorate
Poland was restored to the European map
The Ottoman empire was divided into mandates with Great Britian controlling Iraq and Pakistan, and France acquiring Syria and Lebanon
During this time the World began to see big changes that had both positive and negative affects. Changes in political, economic, and social structures resulted in conflict, tension, new global institutions, new policies, and technology.
Dissolution of global empires
New political systems
New social Structures
Military build up
New global institutions
Adolf Hitler rises to Power in Germany. Blames the jewish community and other non Aryan races/religions for the loss of WWI
Establishes concentration camps and begins his persecution of the jews.
Create a superior all white race
Over 6 mil. Jews Killed
Ended as a result of Germany's loss in WWII
Persian Gulf War
9/11 Terrorist Attacks
US Coalition- Iraq War
Global Economic Crisis
On September 9, 2001
19 Islamic militants associated with al-Qaeda hijacked four airliners and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States.
North Vietnam- Soviet + China
Two of the planes were flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City
A third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington D.C
The fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania.
Led to hundred of deaths and fear instilled into Amerian minds
Also led to the US commiting to combat against terrorism
Hundreds of Thousands of US troops fighting over in Vietnam
US negotiated to end its participation in the fight against communism
Southern Vietnam's government collapsed resulting in a communist takeover
The period since 1900 was a period of rapid technological development
Iraq vs US
Both World War 1 and World War 2 contributed tehnological advancements including:
Airplanes used in combat
Iraqi leader ordered an invasion on their neighboring country of Kuwait.
Saudi Arabia and Egypt call on Western powers to end the invasion.
The space age
discovery of DNA
Other following advancements in technology:
Operation Desert Storm:
Massive US attack!
Lasted 42 Days
Kuwait is saved from Iraq and communism
Attacks of September 11th
Iraq's continued ownership and production of mass destruction
Iraq's support of Terrorist Groups
UN security council suspicious of Iraq
Ṣaddām’s refusal to leave Iraq
Brief War fought in the Spring of 2003
US & British troops invade and defeat Iraqi army
US occupation in Iraq in an effort to rebuild and restore Iraq back to a peaceful state.
Rebelled against and opposed by certain people
US begins to gradually withdrawal troops military and reduce military presence. (fully completed Dec. 2011)
In 2008 the world economy faced its most dangerous crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s
The contagion, which began in 2007 when sky-high home prices in the United States finally turned decisively downward, spread quickly, first to the entire U.S. financial sector and then to financial markets overseas.
Banks trusted no one to pay them back, simply stopped making the loans that most businesses need to regulate their cash flows and without which they cannot do business.
By the end of the year, Germany, Japan, and China were locked in recession, as were many smaller countries.