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Ch 23 - Evolution in Populations

Chapter 23 - adapted from prezi by David Knuffke Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet. Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
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Julie Paoli

on 3 March 2017

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Transcript of Ch 23 - Evolution in Populations

Review:
Gene
– determines a trait (ex. eye color)
Allele
– A variant of a gene (ex. brown eyes vs. blue eyes)

All sexually reproducing organisms have
2 alleles
for any trait.

Dominant
– An allele that will show a trait, regardless of the other other allele (ex. brown eyes)
Recessive
– An allele that will only show a trait if both alleles are recessive (ex. blue eyes)

New Terminology:
Population
- a localized group of interbreeding individuals
Gene Pool
- the collection of alleles in the population
remember difference between alleles & genes!
Evolution
= change in allele frequencies in a population
Measuring Evolution
p + q = 1
p + 2pq + q = 1
Hardy-Weinberg theorem:
assume 2 alleles = B, b
frequency of dominant allele (B) =
p
frequency of recessive allele (b) =
q
frequencies must add to 1 (100%), so:
p + q = 1
Populations Evolve
Individuals are selected
Differential survival, differential reproductive success

Populations evolve
The genetic makeup of a population changes over time
Fitness increases: Favorable traits (greater fitness) become more common
Natural Selection acts on Variation
Variation is the raw material for natural selection.
There have to be differences within population. Some individuals must be more fit than others

Where does variation come from?
Mutation
: random changes to DNA (Why?)
Sex
: mixing of genes ("
recombination
"). New arrangements in every offspring

Offspring inherit traits from parents
5 Sources of Evolution
Required Terminology
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Describes a Hypothetical, non-evolving population that
preserves allele frequencies.
Serves as a model for comparison (
null hypothesis
).
Natural populations are never in H-W equilibrium.
Useful model to measure how forces are acting on a population.
1.
Mutation
Mutation creates variation
new mutations are constantly appearing
Mutation changes DNA sequence, changes amino acid sequence, changes protein structure & function, changes traits, changes fitness (maybe)
2.
Gene Flow
Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations.
seed & pollen distribution by wind & insects
migration of animals
reduces differences between populations
Gene flow in human populations is increasing today thanks to modern travel technology
3.
Non-random mating
Sexual selection
4.
Genetic drift
Effect of chance events; founder effect, bottlenecks
Loss of alleles from gene pool: reduces variation, reduces adaptability
5.
Natural selection
Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions
Combinations of alleles that provide “fitness” increase in the population
Adaptive evolutionary change
An Application of H-W principle: Sickle cell anemia
Due to a mutation in a gene coding for
hemoglobin
(oxygen-carrying blood protein)

recessive allele =
Hs
- makes a defective protein
dominant allele =
Hb
- makes a normal protein

A recessive disease: individuals must be
Hs
/
Hs
to have sickle cell anemia
Symptoms:
low oxygen levels causes RBC to sickle
breakdown of RBC
clogging small blood vessels
damage to organs
often lethal in childhood

Sickle cell frequency:
High frequency of heterozygotes ("
sickle cell trait
") in African population
1 in 5 in Central Africans =
Hb
/
Hs
Unusual for allele with severe detrimental effects in homozygotes
1 in 100 = Hs/Hs
usually die before reproductive age


In tropical Africa, malaria is common.
Heterozygous (
Hb
/
Hs
): confers resistance to malaria.
Homozygous dominant (
Hb
/
Hb
): die/reduced reproduction from malaria.
Homozygous recessive (
Hs
/
Hs
): die/reduced reproduction from sickle cell anemia.
Heterozygote carriers survive & reproduce: Hs allele becomes common in population

"
Heterozygote Advantage
"
H-W formulas:
Gene Pool:
p + q = 1
Individuals
p + 2pq + q = 1

frequency of homozygous dominant: p x p =
p
frequency of homozygous recessive: q x q =
q
frequency of heterozygotes: (p x q) + (q x p) =
2pq

frequencies of all individuals must add to 1 (100%), so:
p + 2pq + q = 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
Big Questions
Make Sure You Can
Solving HW Problems
1. Write both equations.
2. Identify any given information.
3. Don't screw up squaring frequencies!
Remember that the square root of a decimal is a LARGER number than that decimal.
ex: What is the square root of 81? What is the square root of 0.81?
4. First: figure out q!
5. Work your way around the problem until all terms are solved for.
6. Practice makes perfect!


A. If 64% of the individuals in a population exhibit the recessive appearance, what % of the gene pool is dominant (assume HW equilibrium)?

B. A population contains individuals, 16% of whom show the recessive trait What % of the population is pure dominant? What % of the gene pool is recessive? What percent of the population is hybrid (assume HW equilibrium)?

C. How can you identify if a population is in HW equilibrium? Refer to the HW equations in your answer.
Any Questions?
aka "Enter Math"
2
2
How is variation generated and maintained in a population?

How do we know evolution is happening in populations?

What aspects of a population contribute to evolution?

How can evolution be qualitatively and quanititatively measured?

How does measuring evolution help us understand how populations are evolving?
Explain how variation is produced and maintained in a population.

Define all new terms used in this presentation in your own words and give descriptive examples.

Explain how each source of evolution in a population affects variation and selection.

Use the HW theorem with facility (be able to move through all terms of both equations).

Apply the HW theorem to actual populations.

The Theorem:
In the absence of all other factors the segregation and recombination of alleles during meiosis and fertilization will not change the genetic make-up of a population
Population is
NOT EVOLVING!
1. No Mutations
2. Random Mating
3. No Gene Flow
4. No Natural Selection
5. No Genetic Drift = large populations
The following 5 conditions must be met
All Alleles in the population = the Gene Pool
What it is:
Change in the frequency of traits in a population due to gender preferences

SELECTIVE
change. May seem
MALADAPTIVE
.

Acts in all sexually reproducing populations.

"The traits that get you mates!"
You don't REALLY need to survive after mating...
Why does this happen?
Sexually selected traits serve as fitness markers for mating.
You know what they say about crabs with big claws...
Genetic Drift
What it is:
Change in the frequency of traits in a population due to chance events.
RANDOM
change.

NOT Selective.

NOT Adaptive
Founder effect
:
A new population is started by a small group of individuals.
Somes rare traits may be at high frequency (or "
fixed
" at 100%); others may be missing (or "
lost
").
Common in island populations (both physical and reproductive--Why?)
Polydactly, one a sign of Ellis-van Crevald syndrome. Common among the Amish in Pennsylvania
Diagram of the Founder Effect
Bottleneck effect
:
When a large population is drastically reduced by a non-selective disaster: famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat.

Loss of variation by chance event narrows the gene pool
Cheetah's have been through 2 bottleneks in recent history:

Recent ice age (~10 kya)
Overhunting


Living cheetahs are as genetically similar to each other as identical twins.

What problems does this cause?
Data showing the effect of habitat destruction on the Illinois population of the Greater prarie chicken.
Diagram of a "Bottleneck"
Effects of Evolution
How does evolution work?
Traits must be inherited!






...at least to some degree
Modes of selection:
How selection affects a population.
Evolution is a population level phenomenon.







It emerges from the selection of individuals by the environment.
Disruptive
Directional
Stabilizing
Against the mean, towards both extremes
Towards the mean, against extremes
Towards one extreme
Traits can be physiological OR behavioral
Reproductive success is ALL that matters.
The different morphologies of Nemoria arizonaria catterpillars is due entirely to chemicals in their diet, NOT genetic differences
Oak leaf diet
Oak Flower diet
Mantis mating behavior results in the death of the male during copulation
Any Questions?
Concept Review
Convergent Evolution
Divergent Evolution
Co-Evolution
Mimicry
Full transcript