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Types of Governments and Religions - World History A

World History A
by

Ryan Yoder

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Types of Governments and Religions - World History A

Types of Governments
and Religions

GOVERNMENTS
RELIGIONS
autocracy
democracy
oligarchy
anarchy
powers to govern is held by one person
total control of the government
power inherited or by military force
3 TYPES OF
AUTOCRACY
totalitarian dictatorship
#1
government seeks to control all aspects
of social and economic life

examples: HITLER - GERMANY
STALIN - sOVIET UNIOIN
CASTRO - CUBA
current: KIM JUNG IL - NORTH KOREA
#2
absolute monarchy
king, queen, or emperor
power is inherited or passed down
by family members

examples: RUSSIAN CZARS (EARLY 1900'S)
ABDALLAH - SAUDI ARABIA
#3
constitutional monarchy
share powers with elected legislators
kings/queens figure heads

examples: QUEEN ELIZABETH II - GREAT BRITAIN
AKIHITO - JAPAN
EXAMPLES
HU JINTAO - CHINA
AHMADINEJAD - IRAN
GREEK CITY STATES
ROMAN REPUBLIC (TRIUMVERANTS)
ETRUSCANS
small group of people hold power
group is either from:
- MILITARY, WEALTH, RELIGIOUS, OR SOCIAL STATUS

usually suppresses political opposition
claim to rule for the people
RULE BY THE PEOPLE
direct democracy
representative democracy
people vote on all issues
exisits in small socities where citizens
can regulary meet and discuss issues

examples
- NEW ENDLAND STATES, ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY,
AND ROMAN REPUBLIC (CIRCA END OF CAESAR)
REPUBLICS OR CONSTITUTIONAL REPUBLICS
people elect representatives
give representatives power to vote/discuss issue
based on majority rule

free elections
- votes carry equal weight
- express views freely
- citizens can help candidates
- vote by secret ballot

examples: obama - US
king/prime minister - sweden
"WITHOUT A RULER"
situation where no government is in charge

usually happens:
- AFTER CIVIL WAR
- COLLAPSE OF GOVERNMENTS
examples:
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR (MID 1600'S)
EARLY PENNSYLVANIA
SOMALIA (CURRENT)
judaism
islam
hinduism
buddhism
christianity
FACTS
world's oldest religion

people known as JEWS

monotheistic
history of judaism
divine covenant between God and the ancient Israelites
covenant that someday he will send
he messiah back to setup his kingdom
leading to world peace
Jews/chirstian disagreement
EARLY LEADERSHIP
abraham was the first leader
4 promises
1. to bless Abraham
2. create a great nation
3. be a blessing to many
4. blessed are those who bless Israel
and curse those who curse her
moses led the israelites out of Egypt
recieved Law from God
King Solomon temple built/destroyed in 70 ad
- Jews were scattered
in 1948 the nation of Israel was created
TRADITIONS
Tanakh (old testament)
contains 39 books
Torah (5 books)
- most important of Jewish scripture
synagogue
- house of worship
rabbis
- spiritual leaders
Yahweh
- is the name of the one true God
- delivered Israel from Egypt and gave the Ten
Commandments
montheistic
largest religion
2.2 billion followers
JESUS OF NAZARETH
founder is jesus christ
- born a jew
- son of God

crucifixion sentenced by pontius pilate
- died on the cross in 33 ad
- basic beliefs
jesus tought there is only one god
he was sent to earth to save us from our sins
religions for all people (poor)
Forms of Christianity
ROMAN CATHOLIC
EASTERN ORTHODOX
PROTESTANT
more than 1 billion
italy, spain, latin america

pope is based out of Rome
successor to St. Peter
7 sacraments
highest numbers in Greece, turkey, and russia
225 million followers

differs in way of life and worship
old testament based on Hebrew
500 million followers
baptist, lutheran, methodist, anabaptist
only recognize two sacraments
- baptism and communion
HOLIDAYS
BIBLE
easter
- jesus arose from the grave

chirstmas
- birth of jesus christ
new/old testament
- old: hebrew
- new: greek

66 books
translated into over 2000 languages
10 commandments
- exodus 20
"SUBMISSION"
FACTS
FOUNDER
followers are called MUSLIMS
saudi arabia
2nd largest religion
muhammad
born in mecca, saudi arabia
god - allah sent muhammad
as a messenger
"WORD OF GOD"
THE WORDS OF ALLAH HIMSELF
STORIES WERE TOLD BY MUHAMMAD
WRITTEN DOWN AT LATER DATE
HIGHEST AUTHORITY IN
RELIGION AND LAW
BASIC BELIEFS
GOD CREATED NATURE AND WITHOUT
THERE WOULD BE NOTHINGNESS

FOUR FUNCTIONS
CREATION
SUSTENANCE
GUIDENCE
JUDGMENT

ALCOHOL, DRUGS, AND
GAMBLING SHOULD BE AVOIDED
5 pillars of islam
1. TITHING
2.5% charity tax

2. RECITE THE SHAHADAH
"I bear witness that there is no god, but God; I bear witness that Muhammad
is the prohet of God."
one enters the islamic faith

3. PRAY 5 TIMES A DAY
must face Kaaba in Mecca
- Kaaba is considered the holiest place on Earth
- believed to be built by Abraham
used for meditation and reflection

4. FASTING DURING RAMADAN

5. PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA
only way not to visit is if you are physically unable or can not afford
is there a 6th pillar of islam?
JIHAD
inner - submit to Allah
outer - defend Islamic community

creation of Israel in 1948 upset Islamic community
2 branches of islam
SUNNI
believe that the rulers need only
be followers of Muhammad
90% of muslims
940 million - 1.3 billion
SHIITES
ruler should be descendents
from muhammad
closest relative as succesor
10%; 120 million
history
900 million followers
developed in northern india
80% of india's population
named for indus river
no founder
traditions
very complex
numerous sects
hindu gods
- Brahma
- Vishnu
- Shiva
vishnu
shiva
MAJOR BELIEFS
matter of practice rather than on beliefs
- more of WHAT you do
rather than what you BELIEVE
practice reincarnation
- soul, upon death of the body, comes back
to earth in another body form
karma
- positive or negative deeds that one has done
- determines where you will be in the next life
dharma
- code for leading one's life
human nature in bondage but one is able to escape.
the purpose of life is to
attain liberation from the cycle of reincarnation.
hindus believe that existence
of the cycle is governed by KARMA.
leader: guru or sage
place or worship: temple/Mandir
text: verdas (sanskrit)
- Guide for Hindus in daily life
3 HINDU PRACTICES
worship
- faith and offereings made to Gods
cremation
- the dead are burnt not buried
compliance with caste system
- classes broken into 4 classes
- born into your parents class
- Lowest class: untouchables
- outlawed in 1950's
THE BUDDHA
SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA
- "THE AWAKENED"
A PRINCE
- death, old age, pain
REACHED ENLIGHTENMENT AGE OF 35
BELIEFS
DO NOT BELIEVE IN A GOD OR GODS
FAITH IN BUDDHA, HIS TEACHINGS &
RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY
PURPOSE IN LIFE REACH ENLIGHTENMENT
BREAK CYCLE OF REBIRTH AND ATTAIN NIRVANA
THREE JEWELS
5 PRECEPTS
1. belief in Buddha
2. Dharma - teachings
of buddha
3. The Sangha
1. do not kill
2. do not steal
3. abstain from sexual
misconduct
4. do not lie
5. do not consume
alcohol/drugs
meditation
hgjh
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