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Wireless Sensor Networks

Founded in 2011-Faculty of Engineering,Ain Shams University<IC LAB>,ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks,Industrial and Academic Projects,Wireless Sensor Networks using Zigbee Technology(http://www.zigbee.org/) built on IEEE Standard 802.15.4
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Mohamed Farag

on 22 January 2012

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Transcript of Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks Seminar Applications IEEE 802.15.4 Challanges How Important ? Future Research Intersets Rugged, Reliable Embedded Hardware WSN devices are designed to monitor assets or environments in outdoor or harsh settings and hard-to-reach places. Size, weight, and I/O channel density are critical design requirements in many such embedded applications. Temperature ranges of -40° C to 70° C (-40° F to 158° F), a 50 g shock rating, and a variety of international safety, electromagnetic compatibility, and environmental certifications and ratings are all available with WSN devices. Node Programmability you can create and deploy embedded applications to programmable WSN measurement nodes using the LabVIEW graphical development environment – no knowledge of embedded programming is required. Web-Based Visualization and Analytics you can access measurement data from any location, on any Web-enabled platform. For example, you could monitor WSN-acquired valve pressure from your mobile phone or laptop. All NI real-time targets, including the NI 9792 programmable gateway, feature integrated Web servers that can host measurement data for remote access. Flexibility A wireless measurement system frees you from the confines of wired infrastructure. With WSN nodes, you can monitor hard-to-reach places and bring node-level analysis and control to your measurement locations. Cost Savings Wireless measurement systems eliminate the need for costly and prohibitive wiring. Copper and Ethernet can quickly become the most expensive portions of a distributed monitoring system. By taking advantage of wireless technology, you can save thousands of dollars on installation costs. In addition, a wireless monitoring system offers more insight into overall asset and environment health, preventing downtime and saving in maintenance costs. Timeline
• 1970’s: Wired sensors connected to central location
• 1980’s: Distributed wired sensor networks
• 1993: LWIM project at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)
• 1999-2003: DARPA SensIT project: UC Berkeley, USC, Cornell etc.
• 2001: Intel Research Lab at Berkeley focused on WSN
• 2002: NSF Center for Embedded Networked Sensing
• 2001-2002: Emergence of sensor networks industry; startup
companies including Sensoria, Crossbow, Ember Corp, SensiCast
plus established ones: Intel, Bosch, Motorola, General Electric,
Samsung.

• 2003-2004: IEEE 802.15.4 standard, Zigbee Alliance. Berkeley Mote (MICAz MPR 2400 Series) Requirements Environmental Monitoring Applications Industrial applications Traditional single-sink WSN and A more general Scenario !! 2-Structural Health Monitoring 1-Environmental Monitoring 3-Energy Monitoring 4-Machine Condition Monitoring 5-Transportation 6-Industrial Monitoring And It is important to underline that the application strongly affects the choice of the wireless technology to be used. 7-Distributed Temperature Monitoring Applications Classification:- Event detection (ED) spatial process estimation (SPE). sensors are deployed to detect an event,
for example a fire in a forest, a quake SPE the WSN aims at estimating a given physical phemenon for e.g:-
1- the atmospheric pressure in a wide area
2.the ground temperature variations in a small volcanic site And each of these application has it’s own requirements A WSN can be defined as a network of devices, denoted as nodes, which can sense the environment
and communicate the information gathered from the monitored field (e.g., an area or volume) through
wireless links . The data is forwarded, possibly via multiple hops, to a sink (sometimes denoted as
controller or monitor) that can use it locally or is connected to other networks (e.g., the Internet) through
a gateway. The nodes can be stationary or moving. They can be aware of their location or not. They can
be homogeneous or not. coordinate actions over a shared channel Multi hop is a critical for WSN….??
Solutions were the INTERNET and MANET routing techniques??!
But…they didn’t perform well in our case!!!

These differences have necessitated the invention of new solutions..!!
 Building tables for neighbor

Once the tables exist, in most WSN routing algorithms messages are directed from a source location to
a destination address based on geographic coordinates, not IDs….!!!

Additional key issues for WSN…??


• Reliability,
• Integrating with wake/sleep schedules,
• Unicast, multicast and anycast semantics,
• Real-time,
• Mobility,
• Voids
• Security
• Congestion. Node localization is a function of many problems and requirements which make it very complex!!!!

Issues to consider:
1-the cost of extra localization hardware
2-is it a 2D or 3D localization problem
3-is the system indoors/outdoors

their solutions!!! clocks is WSN should read the same time ….since clocks drift over a time…they must be re-synchronized

why synchronization is very important??!!!
NTP protocol used to solve this issue…RBS
Accuracies are around 30 microseconds for 1 hop……..
BUT THIS DIDN’T ADRESS MULTI HOP SYSTMES..it’s extended in TPSN It’s aim is to increase life time of node…..


How could this be achieved??!!

Hard ware level
Soft ware level

Solutions for sleep/wake-up patterns :-

sentries
duty-cycle Tepology Formation Other Technologies Questions
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