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Rome: Interaction between humans and the environment

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Antonio Lombardo

on 15 January 2016

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Transcript of Rome: Interaction between humans and the environment

Rome: Interaction between humans and the environment
Development and Interaction of cultures
Gender Roles
- Rome was a Patriarchal society like Greece, with males running the families. (
pater familias
)
- Romen women fell to domestic affairs.
- Although women were inferior to men, they played a big role in family affairs such as, bearing children and educating them.
Creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems
The Arts and Architecture
Roman architecutre is called
Romanesque Architecture
. which was thick walls and small square buildings
An important achievement is the Colosseum (cerca 80 C.E.) ( it still stands today).
The Romans built with concrete..
Romans built many roads and aqueducts that still stand today.
Science and Technology
Science reached new heights
Ptomely (cerca 90 C.E.- 168 C.E.) looked to the stars and greatly advanced astronomy.
Labor Systems
The Romans relied on Slaves as a cheap labor force.
Slaves were gathered through conquest.
There was a slave revolt led by a man named Spartacus (cerca 73 B.C.E.).
The Plebians were the main source of labor outside of the slaves.
Han China (206 B.C.E-220 C.E)
Social and Economic Classes
- New classes of merchants, landowners and contractors emerged and gained wealth.
- Patricians were the high ruling class, while Plebeians were the lower class of Rome.
- Social destinctions were primarily based on birth. However, as time went on, Plebeians could gain power while Patricians fell into poverty.
Gender Roles
- Han China was a
patriarchal
society.
-They believed in the total respect for elders and ancestors, also known as, filial piety
-Women were not allowed to be eductated.
-Womens main role in society was to bear children and be submissive to men. However, there were a few women scholars such as, Ban Zhao who wrote Lessons for Women, this is similar to the Law Book of Manu.
Social and Economic Classes
- Han China had a three tiered social structure with the emperor, aristocrats and bureaucrats on top, skilled laborers such as, farmers and iron workers in the middle and servants and slaves on the bottom.
- In Han China there were very sharp social destinctions
Development and Transformation of Social Structures
Development and Transformations of Social Structures
Classical Rome

Development and Interaction of Cultures
Science and Technology
The Han invented
Paper
( cerca 100 B.C.E),accutate sundials,calanders,the rudder( cerca 100 C.E.), and the compass (206 B.C.E).
The compass wouldn't be used until later dynasties.
Many inventions are still used today.
The Arts and Architecture
The Han had an emphasis on funerary art.
The Han had thatched roofs, colums, and raftering for architectural structure.
Creation, Expansion, and interaction of economic systems
Labor systems
The Han had a slave system who were owned by the wealthy land owners.
They mostly relied on tenant farmers for argicultural ouput.
Also wage workers were used for labor during the Han dynasty.
Trade and commerce
Romans became known as outstanding
road builders
which were able to allow two way traffic. The roads had milestones along them and they had an imperial postal system that permitted urgent travel and messages to proceed with remarkable speed. Their roads linked all parts of the Roman empire
The Romans established sea lanes that linked ports from Syria and Palestine to Spain and north Africa
For the Roman Empire, Greece gave olives and grapevines, Syria and Palestine produced and gave fruits, nuts, and wool fabrics, Gaul produced grain and copper, Spain gave olive oil, wine, horses, and some precious metals
Political structures and forms of governance
Rome's official law code was the
Twelve Tables of Rome
for citizens of the early republic
Roman law helped to integrate the diverse lands that made up the empire and their principles of law helped to shape Mediterranean and European society long after the empire disappeared
Empires/Revolts and Revolutions
It took three Punic Wars for the Romans to finally destroy Carthrage and continue their expansion throughout the Mediterranean
Civil war between the Senate and Caesar's followers would eventually lead to Caesar being crowned "emperor for life". But Caesar would get murdered by the angered senators who assassinated him in 44 B.C.E
The eventual emperor, emperor Nero started persecuting Christians and even killing some in open spectacles at the Colosseum and it took Emperor Constantine himself to stop the persecution with his
Edict of Milan
in 313 C.E
Political structures and forms of governance
Liu Bang,
the founder of the Han dynasty, divided the empire into administrative districts governed by officials who served at the emperor's pleasure
Liu Bang and his successors followed a policy of centralization and entrusted political responsibilities to an administrative bureaucracy
Han Wudi
, an emperor who ruled from 141 to 87 B.C.E, eventually built an enormous bureaucracy to administer his empire and sent imperial officers to implement his policies and maintain order in administartive provinces and districts
Mayan
Empire
The Arts and Architecture
Science and Technology
Development and interaction of cultures
Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems
Labor systems
Philosphers
Socrates
(cerca 470 B.C.E.-348 B.C.E.),
Plato
( cerca 428 B.C.E.-348 B.C.E.), and
Aristotle
( cerca 383 B.C.E.-332 B.C.E.) ( who would go on to teach Alexander) all believed that the truth could be found from rational thought.
Many of their observations were proven wrong, but they came up with the idea of
rational thought.
Their idea of rational thought paved the way for many therioes of how the earth works.
The golden age of Pericles resulted in the creation of many dramas.
It was dominated by comedies and tragedies.
Homer wrote many epic poems such as the Odyssey (cerca 720 B.C.E) and the Lliad (cerca 750 B.C.E) a few centuries before this golden age.
The people of Greece also created many sculptures.
There were impressive buildings such as the Acropolis (cerca 5th century B.C.E.) and the Parthenon (cerca 447-432 B.C.E.).
They had three styles of pillars Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
Ancient Greece relied on slave labor.
Slaves were captured people from conquered cities, children of slaves, or people sold into slavery.
Much of the population was slaves.
Their jobs ranged from field work to being a house servant.
The Arts and Architecture
Science and Technology
Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems
Labor Systems
Mayans built large pyramids that had step like formations.
Mayans created many murals and decorated rooms with a variety of media.
Most of their structures were built for their gods.
Mayans built most buildings out of limestone.
The Mayans seperataly developed the concept of zero. (cerca 4 C.E.)
An advanced knowledge of
astronomy
allowed them to predict solar elcipes and create a almost accurate calander.
The Mayans also developed very complex looms, but lacked metals and the wheel.
The Mayans used a hieroglyphic alphabet for writing.
The Mayans used slaves for labor.
The Mayans gathered slaves through conquest.
The slaves recieved no rights in society.
Development and Transformation of Social Structures
Gender Roles, Family and Kinship
- Greece was also a patriarchal society, as was Rome.
-Women fell under the authority of their fathers, husbands and/or sons.
-Women often had to wear veils to discourage male attention.
-Women could not own proprety. however, could own small business or become prietesses (highest rank in society for women.)
-in Sparta, women were allowed to participate in athletic games.
Social and Economic Classes
- Upper class: Athens
-Middle class: Metics
-Lower class: Freedmen
-Slaves
- Were born into social classes.
- Upper class took part in activities such as, goverment, philosopy, literature and war,
- The middle class was involved primarily in trading and manufacturing jobs.
- Lower class were once slaves and not granted many rights nor citizenship.
- Slaves were used for labor sources and had to pay heavy amounts of money to earn their freedom. however they would still have no rights.
Development and Transformations of Social Structures
Gender Roles, Family and Kinship
- The Gupta Empire was a patriarchal society like Rome, Greece and many other classical civilizations.
- Women were being educated in the arts and were seen as important in literature.
- There were female godesses that helped womens social status.
- Womens status fell throughout time in the empire. However, there were exceptions, some women even participated in government.
- Male members dominate family matters and structure.
Social and Economic Classes
- Social structure was based on the Caste System, the system is assosiated with Hinduism.
- "Untouchables" were the people below or outside of the caste system.
- Untouchables were the lowest class, they had no rights, were not allowed to worship on temple or holy grounds.
- If someone in any social class breaks any social norm, a punishment would be to make them an untouchable as well.
- The Caste System dominated every day life in the Gupta Empire.
Brahmin: priests
kshatriya: nobles and warriors
Vaishya: farmers, traders, artisans
Shudra: servents
Religion
In Rome, the main religion was
Roman Catholicism
. However, prior to adapting to Catholicism, Romans used the idea of Greek mythology in there own way.
Ideologies
The Churches within the Empire soon had conflict and would separate later in 1054 C.E but it stemmed from their internal conflict that was around from 600 B.C.E-600 C.E, eventually causing a Eastern Orthodox Church and the Western Roman Catholic Church.
In Greece, many people believed in the idea of
Mythology
. In Mythology, there are many deities or gods that they believed in and believed that they helped perform daily activities. Some gods for example were Zeus(God of the sky) and Hades(God of the underworld)

Religion
Development and Transformation of Social Structures
Gender Roles, Family and Kinship
- Women participated in economic and farming activities.
- Women took a large part in religion.
- Goddesses depicted womens status in religion. (ie, Moon Goddess.)
- Elite males practiced
polygamy
.
- Most women had low educations.
- Women helped in the textile industry which was a large industry in Mayan society.
Social and Economic Classes
- Social classes were ridgidly divided into nobles, commoners, serfs and slaves.
- Commoners mostly worked as farmers and laborers while nobles worked in goverment positions or tax collectors.
- Slaves were normally sacrificed in spiritual rituals.
- The commoners made all of the products that boosted their society through trade.
- The economy was being ran by the middle class while elites supervised and benefited.
Development and Interaction of Cultures
Science and Technology
The Arts and Architecture
The Gupta invented the numbers 1-9 and zero as a place holder . (cerca 232 B.C.E.-339 B.C.E.)
They also devised the decimal system.
The Gupta advanced in astronomy and developed the concepts of the lunar and solar eclipse.
The Gupta were also extremely advanced in medicine
.
The Gupta produced literature extensively.
They mainly developed narratives focused on human behavior.
They also developed many medical texts.
Creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems
Labor Systems
The Gupta relied on the
Caste System
to get labor.
Unlike most other nations which used slave labor.
Qin China (221-206 B.C.E)
The Arts and Architecture
Development and interaction of cultures
Science and Technology
There was standardized copper coins being created (cerca 221-207 B.C.E).
The emperor standardized the writing system and the weighting system (cerca 221-207 B.C.E).
The writing was standard Qin.
The Qin built the first
Great Wall
(cerca 221 B.C.E) along the northern border.
Also the terracotta warriors (cerca 210-209 B.C.E.) were created by the Qin.
Creation,expansion,and interaction of economic systems
Labor systems
In Qin China criminals were forced into labor.
They helped build many of their accomplishment.
Mauryan Empire
Development and interaction of cultures
The Arts and Architecture
Science and Technology
Creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems
Labor Systems
The Mauryan built the pillars of Ashoka (cerca 300 B.C.E).
Also they built the Sarnath column.
The Mauryans developed sliver coins (cerca 600-200 B.C.E), while a few were copper, that had various symbols punched on them.
The Mauryans relied on the
Caste System
to provide labor for their needs.
Migration
People came from all surrounding countries and regions to migrate to Rome's new cities
Diseases
Due to the lack of medical technology and advancements, many people died due to diseaes which led to the population declince. This was one of the reasons for Romes initial decline
Interaction Betwen Humans and the Enviroment
Disease
Greece had diseases similar to Rome but none could contribute to the downfall of their empire and none were majorly significant
Migration
Development and Transformation of Social Structures
Gender Roles, Family and Kinship.
-
Patriarchal
society.
- Women stayed home to raise children and complete household chores.
- Women had nearly no rights.
-Women were to obey men and were under authority of males.
- The eldest man would be the one most respected in a family.

- Social Classes: royal family, scholars, wealthy landowners, farmers, merchants, peasants, slaves.
- Peasants and slaves worked for higher class men and on farms, they had little to no rights or freedom.
- The royal family normally married within he family to keep power.
Social and Economic Classes
Development and Transformation of Social Structures
Gender Roles, Family and kindship.


- Women were allowed to have public jobs and women that were married could own land.
- Women handled domestic affairs and could have jobs such as temple dancers and textile workers.
- Widows had a large status in society.

Social and Economic Classes
- The Mauryan Empire used the
Caste System
to manage their society.

Byzantine Empire
Ideologies
In Greece, people praised the many gods they believed in. This belief was
Polytheism
, The belief in many gods. They made sacrifices and prayers to these gods to help them throughout their life
Religion
Many waves of migation from people such as Lonians, Achaeans, and Dorians created the language used in Greece. Although these migrations took place prior, they set the foundation for language and culture
The people of the Mayan empire believed in natural spirits as their gods or rather dieties. They made
human sacrifices
to honor the dieties and to please them. They believed in a higher power for everything on earth and everything for them.
By: Dylan Burgio, Tara Mueller, Antonio Lombardo, Jaeden Hufnagle
Development and Interaction of Cultures
Science and technology
Byzantine rulers created a weapon known as Greek fire.
Arts and architecture
The Byzantine empire used Roman architecture.
Also they used Roman art style.
They built the
Hagia Sophia
(cerca 537 C.E.) which is a large doomed church that became known as the best church ever built, however it was eventually turned into a mosque by the Ottomans
Labor Systems
Creation, expansion,interaction of economic systems
Like its western part the Byzantine empire relied on a system of slavery to support its self.
Roman Empire
Greek Empire
Strong centralized government
Rome's government was a republic
Both were in the Mediterranean basin
Both produced large amounts of olive oil
Both had coins
Both used slave labor
The father was in charge of the family
Later Rome was ruled by an emperor
Rome later conquered Greece
The Roman's spoke Latin, and wrote in Latin script
The combination of the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire lasted from 509 B.C.E.-1453 C.E.
Practiced Greek Mythology
First they had Roman Mythology, and later Christianity
The Greek Empire lasted from 800 B.C.E.- 146 B.C.E.
Greece wasn't as centralized as Rome.
Athens had a democracy, later Greece was ruled by a king ( Alexander the Great)
The Greeks were mostly city-states
Agriculture
Instead of planting crops for immediate local use, owners of
Latifundia
or large landed estates concentrated on production for export
Because it was possible to import grain at favorable prices from lands that routinely produced large surpluses, other regions could concentrate on the cultivation of fruits and vegetables or on the production of manufactured items
Political Structures and Forms of Governance
Each city-state levied taxes on their hinterlands (uncharted areas) and took a portion of the agricultural surplus to support the urban population
State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
Empires
In Athens, Common classes were given representation in Athenian government since the doors of the council were opened to any male citizen wealthy enough to devote time to public affairs. So it was if you were a male landowner, then you could participate in the new form of government called
democracy
Spartans always faced the threat of rebellion from the helots who outnumbered the Spartan citizens by ten to one, so they devoted most of their resources to maintaining a powerful and disciplined military
After taking over, Alexander of Macedon, A.K.A
Alexander the Great
(356 B.C.E-323 B.C.E) built an empire stretching from India to Egypt and Greece
The
Persian Wars
(500-479 B.C.E) began when the Greek cities revolted against the Persian's grip on Anatolia. The greeks ended up expelling the Achaemenid administrators but were repelled by Darius by 493 B.C.E (Ionian Rebellion)
The
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 B.C.E), was a bitter and destructive civil conflict between Athens and Sparta. Until by 404 B.C.E, The Spartans and their allies forced the Athenians to unconditional surrender
Agriculture and Pastoral Production
The Greek colonies along the Black Sea offered mechants access to rich supplies of
grain, fish, furs, timber, honey, wax, gold, and amber
Trade and Commerce
Greek merchants traded olive oil and wine around the Mediterranenan, returning with abundant supplies of grain and other items as well
The Greeks profitably concentrated their efforts on the production and creation of
olive oil and wine
For the Greek's olive oil and wine, Grain came from Egypt, Sicily and southern Russia, salted fish from Spain and Black Sea lands, timber and pitch from Macedon, tin from Anatolia, and slaves from Egypt and Russia
Political Structures and Forms of Governance
Han
Rome
-Decline in public health and urban decay.
-Political corruption.
-Increase in unemployment and inflation.
-Increase in military spending.
-Well organized bureaucracy.
- Only the wealthy were educated.
- Emphasis on Family (Patriarachical )
- Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism.
-Decline: Bad distribution of land, tax fell on peasants, conflict among elites, generals divided it up into three provinces, peasant rebellions ( Yellow Turban Rebellion).
- More middle class citizens
were allowed to be educated.
- Emphasis on family (pater familias).
- Christianity, Mythology.
-Decline: Difficulties in ruling the vast empire, couldn't keep the empire united, capital was moved to Constantinople, Germatic invasions (Vandals, Ostrogoths, Visigoths).


Development and Transformation of Social Structures.
Gender Roles, Family and Kinship
- Women stayed at home and did domestic chores.
- Women had to be accompanied when they left the house.
- Women played a small role in professions and were rarely educated.
- Married women were granted the right of inheritance.
- Men dominated soical and family life.
Social and Economic Classes
Upper class: aristocrats, military officials, state functionaries and wealthy landowners.
Middle class: merchants, traders, and small landowners.
Lower class: low wage earners and people in poverty.
Disease
They also believed in the
Popol Vuh
creation myth that taught that the gods created them out of maize and water.
Migration
During the decline of the Mayan empire, most Maya populations had begun to desert their cities and migrated throughout other parts of Mesoamerica
Similar to many early societies, the Mayan empire didnt pocess the technological advancements to cure diseases and prevent population decrease.
Interaction Between Humans and the Enviroment
Interaction Between Humans and The Enviroment
Disease
Unlike their counterparts, the Gupta Empire had many technological advances in medicine and that enabled them to further themselves in the aspect of technology above others. Many advances were shown in the medical text books found from the Gupta empire.
Migration
Many outsiders migrated into the Gupta Empire and caused their downfall. One of them were the
White Huns
who came from the Hindu Kush mountains into India. They helped cause the decline of the Gupta and migrated their way into the empire
Religion
Empires
Mayan kingdoms fought constantly with each other and victors destroyed the peoples they defeated and took over their ceremonial centers, but it was all about capturing enemies since warriors won tremendous prestige when they brought back important captives from the neighboring kingdoms
Agriculture and Pastoral Production
The Maya built terraces designed to trap silt carried by numerous rivers passing through the low lands, which enhanced the agricultutral potential of the region and dramatically increased their agricultural productivity because of it
They harvested maize in abundnace, cultivated cotton, and raised Cacao beans
Trade
Networks of long-distance trade linked the new urban centers and extended their influence to all parts of Mesoamerica
Mayan textiles were highly prized by their trading partners
State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
The Greeks spoke Greek and wrote in it.
The women in Sparta had more freedom
Tikal
was the most important Maya political center from the fourth century C.E to past 600 C.E
They organized themslves politically into scores of
small-city kingdoms
The mayans had a monarchy since they were ruled by a king
The
Temple of the Giant Jaguar
, a stepped pyramid rising to about 154 feet represented Tikal's control over the surrounding region
The Mayans
bloodletting (human sacrifice) rituals
centered on their war captives, since they were used for it
The Mayans traded mostly in exotic and luxury goods such as rare animal skins, cacao beans, and finely crafted works of art
Political Structures and Forms of Governance
The Guptas left local government and administration along with the making of basic policy, to the hands of their allies in the various regions of their empire
The empire split in the late 500 C.E with the threat of nomadic invaders and it split easily along the fault lines of the administrative regions
Empires
The Gupta empire was smaller than the Mauryan in size and it differed considerably in orgnization
The invasion of the
White Huns
brought about the end of the Gupta empire although the Guptas were able to repel them for the first half of the fifth century C.E, but the defense cost them majorly in resources and also majorly weakened their state
Trade and Commerce
Long distance trade passed overland through either the
Hindu Kush mountains
or crossed to Persia along roads such as the
Persian Royal Road
and to the Mediterranean basin and across the
Silk Roads
of central Asia to markets in China
Cotton, aromatics, black pepper, pearls, and gems
were the principal exports and they exchanged them for the importation of
horses and bullion
from western lands and silk from China
Agriculture
Agricultural surpluses supported the large-scale states such as the Gupta empire
Towns within the Gupta empire provided local goods for local consumption which were
pots, textiles, iron tools, and other metal utensils
Roads built by Ahsoka helped to facilitate overland commerce within the subcontinent
Empire
Han Wudi invaded Vietnam and Korea, and subjected them to Han rule
The Han empire faced its greatest threat from the
Xiongnu
who were a nomadic peoples from the steppes of central Asia. They were superb horesman and were extremely mobile
Han Wudi invaded central Asia with vast armies and brought much of the Xiongnu empire under Chinese military control
Chinese entrepreneurs discovered how to make cast iron by the fourth century B.C.E which allowed for the creation of iron weapons and armor that significantly helped the empire and the military
Trade
Han Wudi built roads and canals to facilitate trade and communication between China's regions
The manufacture of silk thrived after the establishment of long-distance trade relations with western lands in the second century B.C.E
Commerce in silk and other products led to the establishment to a vast network of trade routes known as the
Silk Roads
By 190 C.E, generals ruled the regions controlled by their armies
Agriculture
Before 100 C.E, Chinese craftsmen began to fashion
hemp, bark, and textile fibers
into sheets of paper, which was less expensive than silk and easier to write on than bamboo
The manufacture of silk, also known as
sericulture
, by the Chinese became a prized commodity in Han society and in India, Persia, Mesopotamia, and even the distant Roman empire
Political Structures and Forms of Governance
Chandragupta Maurya
brought a centralized and unified government to most of the Indian subcontinent
The
Arthashastra
, a manual offering detailed instructions on the uses of power and the principles of government also outlined methods of administering the empire, overseeing trade and agriculture, collecting taxes, maintaining order, conducting foreign relations, and waging war
Ahsoka
, arguably the best ruler, ruled through a tightly centralized bureaucracy and made sure his local subordinates implemented his policies
Empire
Chandragupta began his reign by seizing small, remote regions of Magadha. Then, he conquered the Greek state in Bactria
In 260 B.C.E, Ahsoka conquered Kalinga and brought it under Mauryan control in a bloody battle
After Ahsoka's death in 232 B.C.E, the empire depended on a strong army and a large corps of officials to administer imperial policy but it didn't work and led to their downfall
Trade and Agriculture
Although agriculture is not really mentioned with the Mauryan empire, merchants travelled on both land and sea routes to transport their goods
Once mariners recognized
Monsoon wind
rhythms, they could sail easily and safely to any part of the Indian Ocean basin
As early as 500 B.C.E, merchants traveled to the islands of Indonesia and the southeast Asian mainland, where they exchanged
pearls, cotton, black pepper, and Indian manufactured goods for spices and exotic local products
Political structure and forms of governance
The patriarchs of Constantinople were powerful officials, and along with bishops and priests, they delivered sermons that supported imperial policy and encouraged obedience to imperial authorities
Justinian's code, was used by emperor Justinian (Who reigned from 527-565 C.E) to rule his kingdom since it was a codification of Roman law
Constantine initiated the policy of
"caesaropapism"
, which made the emperor not only rule as secular lords, but also as having an active and prominent role in ecclesiastical affairs
They reorganized themselves after Muslim conquests uner the
theme system
, which placed an imperial province under the authority of a general, who assumed responsibility for both its military defense and its civil administration. Emperors closely monitered their activities to prevent decentralization of powered authority
Empire
Between 533 and 565 C.E, Byzantine forces gained control over Italy,SIcily, much of northwestern Africa, and southern Spain
The empire was threatened by the
Sasanids
from the east, and
Slavic
peoples from the north
Agriculture
Agricultural surpluses supprted manufacturing in Byzantium's cities
Byzantine crafts workers had a reputation for their
glassware, linen and woolen textiles, gems,jewelery, and fine work in gold and silver
Crafts workers would eventually add silk textiles to the list of products manufactured in the Byzantine empire in the sixth century C.E
Trade
For the empire, there was routes going east and west as well as north and south with
Constantinople
, which was the capital of the empire,being the main clearing house for trade in the western part of Eurasia
Merchants maintained commercial links with manufacturers and merchants in central Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, northern Europe, and the lands of the black sea and the Mediterranean basin
Silk and Porcelain came from China, spices came from India and southeast Asia, carpets came from Persia and woolen textiles from western Europe, and timbers, furs, honey, amber, and slaves came from Russia and Scandinavia
Political Structures and Forms of Governance
They established a tradition of centralized imperial rule that provided large scale political organization
Qin Shiguandi
(reigned from 221-210 B.C.E) was the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, and he divided the remainder of China into administrative provinces and districts, and he entrusted the communication and implementation of his policies to officers of the central government
Empire
Qin rulers attacked one state after another, absorbing each new conquest into their centralized structure, until finally they had brought China for the first time under the sway of a single state
Qin Shiguandi disarmed regional military forces and destroyed fortresses that might serve as points of rebellion or resistance
Qin Shiguandi also drafted laborers to build defensive walls in an effort to discourage raids by nomadic peoples. It helped ensure them a peaceful and stable society and became known as the first great wall
Trade
The Qin rulers traded with the
Manchus
, who were pastoral nomads
Mauryan
Gupta
Both were settled in India and had tight centralized bureaucracies
Was smaller in size and differed in organization
Was larger and did last longer
Was smarter in Science and Mathematics
Ruled almost all of India and was much more vast than the Gupta
Gupta ruled much less area than the Mauryan did
preffered non-hindu religions or Buddhism
Followers of Hinduism
Actively entered into foreign trade
More interested in internal trade
Tax system was stringent (strict, precise, and exacting)
Favored a more liberal tax system
Overall, the theme of this time period is
, AN EMPIRE IS AN EMPIRE IS AN EMPIRE.......
600 B.C.E-600 C.E
State-building, Expansion, and Conflict
State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
Interaction Between Humans and the Environment
Religion
State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
Interaction Between Humans and the Environment
Religions and Belief Systems
State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
Interaction Between Humans and the Environment
Religions
Interaction Between Humans and the Environment
Disease
Migration
Religions or Belief Systems
Disease
Migration
Migration and Invasion
Disease
Migration
State-Buiding, Expansion, and Conflict
During Han China's rule, the new disease
Smallpox
caused many deaths and causalties. This disease eventually was one of the declining factors of the Han Empire. With more people Dying from this disease, less people were able to defend their boarders, inviting more invaders, causing conflict
Southward Expansion took place after the Qin dynasty and was followed up by the Han dynasty. Due to Military expansion the Han would take over surrounding territories and spread their influence espacially culturally.
Buddhism:
-
Siddhauth Gautama founded Buddhism
-Rejected wealth
-The buddha=enlightened one
-
Four Noble Truths
:
1. All life is Suffering
2. Suffering is caused by desire
3. One can be freed of desire
4. One is freed of desire by following eightfold path
Many diseases made India hard to unify and control due to constant population dereases, then increases. They had many advancements in technology that helped them from the threat of diseases, however just like other empires, disease was a factor in its decline
EightFold Path
:
Right views, right aspirations, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right endeavor, right mindfulness, right meditation
(800 B.C.E-146 B.C.E)
Classical Greece
Gupta Empire
(320 C.E-550 C.E)
Eventually, they were overthrown and destroyed by the
White Huns
, a nomadic group that was part of the Mongols and were extremely powerful and dangerous, who also terrorized Han China
In 300 BCE, the Mauryan empire expanded into the Deccan Plateau and also spread Buddhism.
Confucianism
:
-Developed specifaclly for the chinese
-Severed as a political advisor which had a influence on china.
-Analects= book of teachings
-NOT a religion
5 Key Relationships
-Ruler and Subject
- Parent and Child
-Husband and Wife
-Older brother and Younger Brother
-Friend to Friend
Nomadic people would migrate into Qin China and take down Chinas empire. Qin Shing Huang wanted to keep out the invaders so he contruscted the Great Wall of China.
Legalism
:
-Maintained Peace and Order.
-Centralized, tightly governed state
-Didn't trust Human Nature which advocated the need for tough laws
-Worthy professions= Farming and Military
-Qin used Legalism to unify china.
Christianity
:
-Jesus of Nazareth=Son of God
-New and Old testament in the Bible
-30 CE is when Jesus was crucified
-Saved believers from personal sins
-Christians would travel and preach the word of God to show love for him
-Christ equals link to men and God
-Christianity was rejected by many because of it being a new religion coming into their empire.
Constantinople
was the cross road of civilization. This city tied together Afrcia, Europe, and Asia. All Civilizations migrated together and interacted and traded in Constantinople.
Disease in the Byzantine wasn't as significant in their empire however it effected their western counterpart, Rome and led to thier downfall
Hinduism
:
-Promised salvation to devout individuals.
-Benefited from the decline of buddhism
-Grown from devotional cults
-Vishnu and Shiva= 2 most important dieties
-Many minor dieties
-Followers believed in Salvation from devotion
-Monestic= Many dieties however they believed in supreme diety of Vishnu and Shiva.
Development and Interaction between Cultures
(330-1453 C.E)
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