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Photovoltaic Panels

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by

Tori K

on 7 October 2013

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Transcript of Photovoltaic Panels

Photovoltaic Panels

Abstract
Would it be beneficial to include a line of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the new ISKL campus?

The crux of this question relies on the comparisons of the advantages of the photovoltaic panel to their hypocrisy of yielding environmental pollutants during their production. Statistics and calculations of cost and energy efficiency will be compared to determine if photovoltaic panels would be an improvement on this past years consumption rates , or would inflict a negative overall impact.


How They Work
Photovoltaic cells work through the conductivity of silicon.
When photons from the sun hit the silicon atoms, electrons are knocked loose.
These electrons move through the array of atoms that are located in the silicon, creating an electric field.
The continually movement of electrons across this field creates a stable electric current capable of producing power.
Disadvantages
Solar energy can be inconsistent; night but also during daytime there may be cloudy or rainy weather
Currently, prices of highly efficient solar cells can be above $1000, and initial installation of solar panels are very costly
Solar panels efficiency levels are relatively low (between 14%-25%) compared to the efficiency levels of other renewable energy systems
Panels degrade over time by approximately 20% over 25 years
Large amounts of fossil fuels are used in the manufacture of some of the panels, and the disposal of the waste metals not used present their own set of problems. Mercury and chromium are two of the most toxic.
Our Decision
We recommend the abstention of the use of Photovoltaic panels due to their inconsistency, cost, inefficiency, large energy usage and the harmful substances yielded from the production of the panels.
Photovoltaic panels are made up on silicon based cells.
These cells are assembled into a matrix of 60 cells (6 x 10) and are laminated onto glass.
Each panel includes a junction box to allow for connections, and an inverter-bound conduit.
What are they?
http://www.solar-facts-and-advice.com/what-are-solar-panels.html
http://www.recgroup.com/en/aboutsolar/basic-solar-maths/
http://www.clean-energy-ideas.com/solar/solar-energy/pros-and-cons-of-solar-energy
http://technorati.com/lifestyle/green/article/solar-panels-solar-thermal-vs-photovoltaic/
http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2012/12/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-solar-photovoltaic-quick-pros-and-cons-of-solar-pv
http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/power/1-what-are-solar-panels.html
http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=51
http://www.numbeo.com/pollution/rankings.jsp
http://www.solarworld-usa.com/solar-101/making-solar-panels
http://solarword.blogspot.com/2012/10/why-is-solar-energy-bad-energy-source.html
http://www.energyineducation.ie/Energy_In_Education/Information_for_Builders/Renewable_energy_in_schools/
http://listverse.com/2009/05/01/top-10-renewable-energy-sources/https://docs.google.com/a/iskl.edu.my/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AqPuYaDxJVqtdHhBX1JoUnVUMXpNcGtPRFBoRmVSdkE&hl=en#gid=8
Calculations for Cost
There are two steps to figure out how much money it will cost to set up the panels.
Advantages
Environmental friendly:
PV panels provide clean – green energy
PV panels are silent; they are a good for urban areas and for residential applications
Residential solar panels are easy to install on rooftops or on the ground without any interference to residential lifestyle.
First Step: Finding the system size.

Second Step: Finding the number of
panels needed.
To find the system size,
the following information
is needed:
1) Annual energy needed
(According to ISKL green pages,
school used 2,452,490 kWh)
2) Total hours of sunlight per year
(2228 hours of sunlight in KL)
3) Performance ratio (80%)
Wind Power
Geothermal Power
Hydro Power
Biomass Power
Tidal Power
Wave Power
Radiant Energy
Compressed Natural Gas
Nuclear Power
Alternative Sources
Equation for the system size:
System Size = Annual Energy Needed / (Annual hours of sunlight * Performance Ratio)
System Size = 2,452,490/(2228*0.8)
System Size = 1,375.948 kW or 1,375,948 W
Finding the number of panels
Number of Panels = System Size/ Watt class per panel
System Size = 1,375,948 Watts

Watt Class per panel = 230
Number of Panels = 1,375,948/230
Number of Panels = 5983
Finding the cost
Average amount of money for one REC230AE solar panel is RM 1772.
Total Cost = Number of panels * 1772
Total Cost = 5982 * 1772
Total Cost = RM 10,600,104
ISKL
ISKL has the potential to harness the power of biomass fuel or use rainwater recovery systems.

However, instead of looking for a renewable resource, we believe ISKL should aim to reduce their energy consumption by:
- Using natural lighting from windows
- Fans instead of AC
- Refrain from use of most electricity during after school hours
Bibliography
by: Tori, Elliot, Jun
Tori Was Here
Evaluation of Methods
The calculations used were based off of an REC230AE photovoltaic panel, which was tested as the most efficient photovoltaic panel in the market. These statistics came from US manufacturers, therefore the statistics of other types of panels might fluctuate from the ones in our presentation. The statistics differ from source to source. This information is only relevant to our school population for the year 2013, as we cannot predict what the energy consumption will be in the next school.
Thank You
Full transcript