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AP English Language and Composition Terms
Transcript of AP English Language and Composition Terms
Tone describes the author's attitude toward his material, the audience, or both. Considering how a work would sound if it were read aloud can help in identifying an author's tone. Some words describing tone are sarcastic, energetic, incredulous, scornful (see above), etc.
The non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. Connotations may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes. Connotations can be both negative and positive.
Didactic works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles. A novel, play, or poem that is didactic aims to teach us something. Didactic works often have morals to impart or are written to teach us something about religion, philosophy, history, or politics. Didactic= did + act, you do an act to teach something (moral)
You may live in a house, but we live in a home.
While house and home have approximately the same denotation- "a dwelling place," feelings of comfort and love are often associated with a home, but are not necessarily associated with a house. The memories and feelings that surround a word (home) make up its connotation. Connotation= common usage
Machiavelli wrote The Prince to be a teaching aid about political power: how to achieve it, maintain it, and expand it.
This picture depicts the tonal word scornful because the woman in blue is scornful towards her ex-husband for marrying another woman.
A short, wise saying that portrays a general truth or idea held by many people. An aphorism can be a memorable summation of the author's point. Aphorism= a + phrase
"That which does not kill us makes us stronger"- Friedrich Nitezsche
Scientists have proven that small amounts of trauma can make us stronger people. Traumatic events we encounter in life make us more prepared and able to withstand other events in life.
Euphemisms are a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept when talking about difficult subjects such as sex, race, and death. The euphemism may be used to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or ironic understatement. Assuming females are more milder than males are- E(xpress) U(yourself) Phemism(feminism)
Until the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified in 1865, The U.S. Constitution never used the words "slave" or "slavery." They instead adopted the euphemism, "all other persons."
Saying "passed away" rather than "died" is an example of euphemism.
A homily literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice. Homily= home + uh (lecture with parents)
A Model of Christian Charity by Governor John Winthrop would be an example of homily. Winthrop wishes to prepare his people (Puritans) for planting a new society in an unknown environment by instilling in them the importance of togetherness, love, and God.
Speech or writing that attacks, insults, or denounces a person, topic, or institution, usually involving negative emotional language.
- The stream of harsh words
"I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth." - Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels
A form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying its opposite. Litote is the opposite of hyperbole. Litotes is recognizable in English by negatives like not, no, non- and un-. A positive is stated by negating its opposite. Litotes= lightly teasted. "I was not lightly teasted." as in "I was made fun of a lot."
"The weather is not bad."
i.e. [The weather is fine]
"You know, Einstein is not a bad mathematician. "
i.e. [Einstein is a good mathematician]
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. The substituted term generally carries a more potent emotional impact. Monotony- same, just one way.
We need a better
at third base. (player)
are on strike. (bus drivers)
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. The word paradox is often used interchangeably with contradiction. Paradox= hoax "Ignorance is strength."
"All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others."
-George Orwell, Animal Farm. Being "more equal" is a paradox, but it doesn't stop the leader of the pigs from the oppressing the other farm animals.
The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in additon to the literal meaning.
Allegory= all gory
Allegory= like story