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Baking Foundations II

Days 1-6
by

Michele Morris

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Baking Foundations II

Misc. Introductions
Review Syllabus
Review MCO
Culinarian Code
Exams and Mid-term
Equipment Learning Outcomes Baking Foundations II Show up on time and do what I ask of you
Actively try to learn in class, communicate with me if you are struggling with something
Take notes
Do Softchalk reviews
Respect
Demonstrate Professionalism
Push yourself to succeed

Learn about BAK 140 grading and performance expectations
Learn about professionalism and uniform expectations
Describe the properties of wheat-based ingredients including types of flours
Make correct flour choices to achieve correct texture in finished product
Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Day 1 How to succeed in this class: Wheat
The most widely used grain in the world
The wheat kernal-3 parts
Endosperm
Germ
Bran Wheat Endosperm
The bulk of the kernal
70-75% starch
contains 2 proteins-glutenin and gliadin
when flour is mixed with water, these form a web of gluten, which is a major component for structure of baked goods The germ
The embryo of the wheat plant
Very small part of the plant, but is very high in protein, fat, vitamins and minerals The bran
The protective outer covering of the wheat kernal
It is darker in color than the endosperm
It is high in dietary fiber Flour
The 2 key components are starch and protein
It also contains moisture,
Pentosans,
Lipids
ash Flour Starch
Starch makes up 68-76% of the flour
Starch is present as small grains or granules Flour-starch Proteins
Glutenin and gliadin
These two combine to form gluten when mixed with water
Also enzymes-amylase, protease, and lipase
Amylase breaks down starches into simple sugar
Protease-breakdown of proteins into peptides or amino acids
Lipase-hydrolysis of fats into glycerol and fatty acids
Acts as the cement that holds the starch granules in place Flour, proteins Moisture
11-14%
if it is higher, it becomes very prone to fungus, mold, and insects
flour must be stored in a cool dry place
FIFO Flour-moisture HG flour
Bread Flour
Pastry Flour
AP flour
Cake Flour Types of flours High gluten flour
Very high protein (13.5-14.5%)
They require a large amount of water to create an acceptable dough
Used in bagels, hearth breads, thin crust pizzas and hard rolls High Gluten flour Bread flour
High in protein (11.5-12.5%), that forms good quality gluten
Which is essential for high volume and fine crumb of yeast-raised baked goods
Courser in texture
Sometimes contains added malted barley flour, which provides for better fermentation, dough handling, and shelf life
Bread flour is Typically used for pan breads, rolls, croissants, and sweet yeast doughs Bread Flour Pastry flour
Soft wheat
Lower protein (7-9.5%)
Low capacity to absorb water
Cookie doughs spread further, and cakes rise higher than with higher protein flours Pastry
Flour Cake flour
6-8 % protein
higher starch content
it is heavily bleached, which weakens the structure significantly
typically very white in color because of the bleaching
also called chlorinated or high-ratio flour
cookies made from cake flour instead of pastry flour-don’t spread as much, they are smaller, brown very little, and have a cake-like texture Cake Flour All-purpose flour
Also called H&R flour (hotel and restaurant flour)
Typically 9.5-11.5% protein
If a recipe calls for AP flour, and you don’t have it-
You can blend 60% bread flour and 40% cake flour
For yeast-raised products-use all bread flour
For fine-textured, high ratio cakes use all cake flour AP Flour Whole wheat flour
contains all three parts of the kernal (bran, germ, endosperm)
11-14% protein
does not form as much gluten as bread flour
because sharp bran particles cut through gluten strands
bran is high in pentosan gums, which interfere with gluten formation
most of the protein comes from the bran and germ, which do not form gluten Whole wheat flour
Mise en place
mixing (3 important requirements)
Distribute ingredients
Develop gluten
Initiate fermentation
Primary Fermentation or bulk fermentation
Punching down
Dividing
Rounding
Benching
Shaping and panning
Proofing
Baking
Cooling
Storing and eating 12 stages of bread making Day 1 Baking Foundations II Day 1 Day 2 Learning Outcomes

Describe the properties of wheat-based ingredients including types of flours
Make correct flour choices to achieve correct texture in finished product
Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a basic yeast-leavened bread
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes

Describe the properties of wheat-based ingredients including types of flours
Make correct flour choices to achieve correct texture in finished product
Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a basic yeast-leavened bread
Define baking terms Baker’s percentages: Indicate the amount of each ingredient used as a percentage to the amount of flour to use.
It deals with the ingredients of a formula in terms of ratios of ingredients to each other.
Bread baking uses baker’s percentages a lot Baker’s percentages Some people find it easier to remember recipes by using baker’s percentages
If you know that a bread dough recipe requires 2/3 as much water as flour, you always know the exact amount of water to add, regardless of your yield
Flour is always 100% Baker’s percentages cont. If two kinds of flour are used, their total is 100%
Since the total amount of flour is designated as 100%, the percentages of all ingredients is more than 100%
If you have a formula that does not contain flour, the percentage is based on the predominant ingredient Baker’s percentages cont. To figure it out:
Total weight of the ingredient X 100%=%of the ingredient
Total weight of flour
  Baker’s Percentages-How To figure it out You can create a recipe by using baker’s percentages, then converting to weight.
If you do not have flour in a recipe, you can use baker’s percentages based on the predominant ingredient
However most people don’t do this,
Generally speaking baker’s percentages are used for breads and yeast doughs, but not all pastry/dessert items
Baker’s percentages make it easy to see at a glance the ingredient ratios and the basic structure or compostion of the dough Baker’s percentages cont. Combined flour is always 100% (Total flour weight or TFW)
TFW=TW /TP
Total flour weight equals total weight divided by total percentage)
IW=IP x TFW
Ingredient weight = ingredient percentage times total flour weight
IP=IW/TFW x 100
Ingredient percentage equals ingredient weight divided by total flour weight times 100 Baker’s percentage Today: In-class assignment on Baker's Percentages
Exam on Product ID-flours Today: Flour ID
Expirament on flours, How Baking Works-Page 106, half recipe Baking Foundations II Day 1 Day 3 Many of our hard-crusted doughs are lean doughs
Including
French and Italian bread,
rolls,
sourdough hearth breads,
bagels
some pizza doughs Lean doughs Our main goal in making bread is to coax the flavors out of the wheat.
We are also allowing complex carbohydrates to break down in simpler sugars
Creating flavor through fermentation, but also breaking down the sugars
We are roasting the flour proteins to coax out the nut-like flavor
We are gelatinizing starches Our goals Mixing
Distribute ingredients
Develop gluten
Initiate fermentation
Direct dough (Aka straight dough)
Generally you are combining all ingredients and mixing
Relies on the flavor of ingredients more than fermentation
Tend to have a larger amount of yeast Mixing You may begin bread recipes with a paddle in the mixer, but you will need to finish it with a dough hook
Lean doughs generally do best with a combination of slow and fast speeds of mixing
Water and flour amounts require some judgment
When adding ingredients to the bowl, avoid putting the salt and yeast in direct contact with each other-salt can kill your yeast
Put the yeast and salt on opposite sides of the bowl (or mix salt into the flour and then mix yeast into the flour) Mixing, cont. Gluten Development
We want gluten in bread baking!
There is no gluten until it is hydrated
You have to mix long enough to develop enough gluten to provide enough structure.
When you think the dough is ready-
The windowpane test
Cut off a small piece of dough from the batch, gently stretch and pull to see if it holds a paper-thin translucent membrane
If the dough falls apart before reaching the membrane, continue mixing
It is possible but very difficult to overmix bread dough Gluten development Straight dough method:
Aka direct dough method
In the bowl that you are mixing in, Soften fresh yeast in a little of the water
Fresh yeast mix with about 2 times its weight in water
Use water at 100 degrees F
Add flour to mixing bowl
Add all remaining ingredients to bowl on top of flour
Mix to a smooth, developed dough
Use windowpane method to check it
Bulk fermentation
Place in bowl large enough to allow for expansion
I usually spray my bowl
Cover with plastic wrap
In proofer at 90 degrees for about 45 minutes to 1 hour
Until you press it and your fingerprint stays for a bit and your dough has doubled in size Straight dough method Punching
Fold the edge over and press into middle to expel gasses,
Repeat on all 4 sides
Scaling-
Use bench scraper to cut dough into the weight that you need as stated in recipe
Rounding
Shape into smooth round balls
Pull it to stretch the top over to the bottom, then pinch the seams
Roll with your hand creating some tension on the bench,
Then cup your hand and finish rolling
Bench
Allow to rest 10-20 minutes-allows gluten to rest
Proof
90 degrees, 80 % humidity
proof until doubled in size and your fingerprint stays
bake
  Straight dough method cont.

Describe the properties of wheat-based ingredients including types of flours
Make correct flour choices to achieve correct texture in finished product
Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes

Describe the properties of wheat-based ingredients including types of flours
Make correct flour choices to achieve correct texture in finished product
Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes Today: Olive Focaccia, page 165
yield 1 half sheet pan
Soft Rolls, page 149
yield 2# 7 oz
Make both doughs today, we will shape and bake half of the rolls today and half tomorrow Rolls
Scale at 1.5 oz per roll
Bake until 190 degrees F internal temp Inspiration: Food = memories
Fall
pasta sauce
blue hubbard Baking Foundations II Day 1 Day 4


Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes Gluten development
What is necessary?
Specific proteins-glutenin and gliadin
water, and
mixing Gluten Kneading
The longer you knead it to a point, the more gluten develops
If you develop too much gluten, the strands are stretched to their max and then they break
If your dough all of a sudden becomes stringy and stretchy and sticks to your hands like bubblegum, your dough is probably over-mixed and broken Kneading/mixing Dough temperature
Most doughs atre at theit best when kneade to 76 degrees F to 80 degrees F and just long enough to develop gluten
Usually 8-15 minutes
If it is too cool, you probably won’t have enough gluten, also your yeast will be too cold to be as active as it should be
If it is too warm-your gluten becomes weakened and your yeast can over-ferment Dough temperature Other things that affect gluten development
The amount of water
Glutenin and gliadin require water to form a gluten network
They absorb water and swell, then bind together
If you add too much water to a recipe, you will not have a tender product (ex pie dough)
Cake batter has so much water that it dilutes the proteins and weakens them
Hard water effects gluten because of the minerals present.
Water pH
pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of water
the ideal pH for maximum gluten development is slightly acidic (pH of 5-6)
by adjusting the acidity of the batter, you can change the structure Other things that affect gluten development Overmixing, creates too much gluten
This can also cause tunneling in your cakes and muffins
Because it is overmixed, gasses have a hard time escaping because the gluten structure is so strong.
Gasses build up, then force their way out, like a volcano
Temperature is a factor as well
The warmer the temperature, the faster the particles hydrate, which means faster gluten development
Fermentation strengthens gluten
Too much fermentation and the strands begin to tear
Tenderizers and softeners
Coat gluten strands and inhibits hydration and bonding together to form the strands Other things that will affect gluten development, cont.
Is an enriched rustic dough,
Can be made either by direct (straight dough) method or indirect (sponge method) should be a smooth and sticky dough, the dough should clear sides of bowl, but stick to bottom
If needed you can add flour but don’t add too much
It should be soft and sticky when shaping.
You should all make a note that the recipe in the book calls for way too many olives, half was more than enough
Focaccia makes great pizza dough! Focaccia, cont.
Should have a nice honey comb crumb
And really good flavor Focaccia


Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes Today: Complete Olive Focaccia, page 165
yield 1 half sheet pan
Shape the rest of the Soft Rolls, page 149
scale 1.5 oz per roll, brush with egg wash Baking Foundations II Day 1


Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes Fermentation (bulk fermentation)
“Fermentation is the single most important stage in the creation of bread”
Each bread will have its own fermentation requirements based on the amount of yeast, nutrients, enzymes, Bulk Fermentation Bulk fermentation Punching down
Is not a good term for the next step
All you are doing is pressing it to release gasses
Too much gas (CO2) will choke your yeast
You are also equalizing the temperature
Redistributing nutrients for the yeast

  Punching down Yeast substitution
100% Fresh Yeast=40% to 50% active dry yeast=33% instant yeast
Once you open yeast, it begins to absorb moisture from the air, and this moisture will activate it.
It will continue to lose strength over time
You can freeze yeast to extend shelf life Temperature of room, length of fermentation etc
You are doing a dance between time, temperature and ingredients
Sugar is necessary for fermentation to occur
This sugar can come from added sugar in the recipe, or from the starches
The less sugar in a dough, the longer the fermentation will need to take because the starches need to break down into sugar Temperature and sugar Only use as much yeast as it takes to get the job done
More is not necessarily better
Your yeast, sugar, and flour need to be in balance
Too much yeast will create an alcoholic taste
Usually the bulk fermentation will take 60-90 minutes misc. The amount of degassing or punching down is determined by the type of crumb you are trying to achieve
Some breads have large uneven holes (desireable in these breads and a sign of good bread)
These require more gas to stay in the bread
Some breads have small uniform holes
These require more gas to be released Punching down, cont. Cuban Bread Cuban bread has addition of sugar-Why?
can be shaped as boule (with a cross slit in it) or it can be shaped as a long baguette, or small sandwich sized loaf
It is argued that the best Cuban bread outside of Cuba is in Florida (which city depends on which one you are from)
water in Florida
Traditional Cuban bread may be made with lard in it


Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes Mauricio Faedo's Bakery Cuban Bread +
5150 N Florida Ave, Tampa, FL Day 5 Day 6 Proofing
You are allowing the shaped dough to rise to about 80-90% of its final size
This is allowing for oven spring proofing


Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes Why the 2nd proof? Because we are allowing the gluten to relax before baking
We are capitalizing on another opportunity to ferment and gain more flavor
We are doubling in size (again)
We are allowing the dough to recover from all of the handling in shaping Proofing box
Usually set to 90 degrees and about 80% humidity
Every 17 degrees F doubles or halves the proofing time
We can establish a little more control over proofing times by using the proofing box
Humidity prevents the dough from developing a skin, which will effect the rise, texture, and final shape of the dough.
Maximum flavor will come from proofing slowly at a cool room temp, however in professional kitchens you usually do not have this option Today: Do Cuban Bread again.
We could do loaves,
but I think we will do Boules again


Define and describe the steps in the production of yeast-leavened breads
Prepare a variety of yeast-leavened bread
Evaluate the quality of yeast-leavened breads
Define baking terms Learning Outcomes
Full transcript