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Globalization - a brief history until the end of the XX century

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Krisztina E. Lengyel Almos

on 29 August 2017

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Transcript of Globalization - a brief history until the end of the XX century

And finally...
the XXI century comes along...
With lots of global challenges & unprecedented interdependence between states,
including tendencies for de-globalization.
A brief overview of the key historical elements of globalization
French Revolution
introduced the nationalistically inspired armies to international politics.
The concepts of
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,"
were introduced and spread beyond borders.
The US became independent from the Kingdom of Great Britain
Industrial Revolution
began: the steam engine appear and many other innovations
In "modern" times...
XVII century
Late XVIII century...
In politics...
The bloodiest century in the history:
2 world wars
, more than 60 million people died (2.5% of world population)
emerges as a superpower after WWII
the need for international cooperation surfaces (
UN: 1945
Constant tension:
Cold War
(massive armament & "star-wars", living under the threat of "MAD")
The Cold War ends in 1989
In technology:
Oil-based century
: energy, transportation, trade, etc.
Theory of Relativity (Einstein)
nuclear bomb
discovered & used
medical discoveries:
telecommunications discoveries: computers, wireless communication, networks appear -> INTERNET
XX Century...
modern state
modern international system
emerged after the Thirty Years´ War with the

Peace of Westphalia in 1648.

The Pope´s Christendom

was replaced by
sovereign states
, recognizing each state as an i
ndivIdual entity.

XVIII century: countries acted based on

balance-of-power principle
The XIX century...
European relations were relatively stable: this period is known as the
"Concert of Europe"
Total war was absent from the European arena, partly due to
´s rise as the most powerful state and its policy of
balance-of power
The world was practically divided among the colonizing powers, the
claimed protection of the Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine, 1823)
The Industrial Revolution continues: trains, railways appear, factories, metro systems, electricity, and

appeared in the middle of the century. Telephone and the 1st cars appeared at the end.
Age of Reason
B. Spinoza
J. Locke
D. Hume
I. Newton
I. Kant
Full transcript