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Globalization - a brief history until the end of the XX century

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Transcript of Globalization - a brief history until the end of the XX century

And finally...
the XXI century comes along...

Photo based on: 'horizon' by pierreyves @ flickr
A brief overview of the key historical elements of globalization
The
French Revolution
introduced the nationalistically inspired armies to international politics.
The concepts of
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,"
were introduced and spread beyond borders.
The US became independent from the Kingdom of Great Britain
the
Industrial Revolution
began: the steam engine appear and many other innovations
In "modern" times...
XVII century
Late XVIII century...
In politics...
The bloodiest century in the history:
2 world wars
, more than 60 million people died (2.5% of world population)
the
US
emerges as a superpower after WWII
the need for international cooperation surfaces (UN: 1945)
Constant tension:
Cold War
(massive armament & "star-wars", living under the threat of "MAD")
The Cold War ends in 1989
In technology:
Oil-based century
: energy, transportation, trade, etc.
Theory of Relativity (Einstein)
nuclear bomb
discovered & used
medical discoveries:
penicillin
telecommunications discoveries: computers, wireless communication, networks appear
XX Century...
The
modern state
& modern international system emerged after the Thirty Years´ War with the
Peace of Westphalia in 1648
.
The Pope´s Christendom was replaced by
sovereign states
, recognizing each state as an indivudual entity.
XVIII century: countries acted based on
the
balance-of-power
principle.
The XIX century...
European relations were relatively stable: this period is known as the
"Concert of Europe"
Total war was absent from the European arena, partly due to
Britain
´s rise as the most powerful state and its policy of
balance-of power
.
The world was practically divided among the colonizing powers, the
US
claimed protection of the Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine, 1823)
The Industrial Revolution continues: trains, railways appear, factories, metro systems, electricity, and

petroleum
appeared in the middle of the century. Telephone and the 1st cars appeared at the end.
Age of Reason
B. Spinoza
J. Locke
D. Hume
I. Newton
Rousseau
Voltaire
I. Kant
Full transcript