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TOK Presentation: Power & Authority

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Yann Ting Lai

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of TOK Presentation: Power & Authority

Power & Authority Real Life Situation Knowledge Issue Areas of Knowledge Conclusion Pastor Kong Hee (Founding Pastor and President of Management Board) of City Harvest Church was charged with misappropriating $24 million in church funds to allegedly finance his wife’s music career

Also involved in the funds movement were the vice-president/senior pastor, finance director, management board member and investment manager Politics In conclusion...

It is difficult to ascertain a politically, lawfully, and ethically right amount of authority to be bestowed on an authority figure because there are many conflicting viewpoints Jason Lim
Lai Yann Ting Stakeholders Politics Ethics Law How do we determine what is a justifiable amount of authority to be given to an authority figure? Ethics Law (contracts) Selection committee Authority Figure Supporters/followers Implications Other links... Limitations - System of election

- Democratic vs Socialist

- Job scope of different roles? - How much power is too much power?

- Is it justified for 1 person/a group of people to have authority over (makes decisions on behalf of/rule over) a larger group of people? - How much power do the contracts allow?

- How binding are the contracts? Authority Figure - Socialism - Communism
- Socialism: any of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods

- Communism: a totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production

- 1 authority figure (or group of leaders) leading the whole government -> country Supporters of Authority Figure - System of Democracy: a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections

- The people affected/supporters are given power to vote and elect leaders (suffrage) Selection Committee - Who is the selection committee? Requirements for membership?

- What basis is the committee acting upon? General rules for selection? Power vs Authority "ability to act or produce an effect"

"possession of control, authority, or influence over others"

"the ability to influence the behavior of people with or without resistance"

"Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic (natural) to humans as social beings" Bibliography Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_(social_and_political)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authority

Merriam-Webster:
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/power
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/socialism
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/communism
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/democracy "power given by the state"

"The term authority is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure" Authority Figure - Bound by a legal contract

- Contract states their job scope (what they can and cannot do, what is expected of them, what is in their power to do ie. amount of authority they have) Supporters of Authority Figure - Not given information about contracts; not given a say into what goes into the contracts Selection Committee - Given full control of the contract-making

- Determines the amount of authority that the authority figure has. Is this fair? - How is the selection committee chosen? Are their decisions necessarily right?

- In certain cases (eg. monarchs, communist countries) there isn't a selection committee - Politics and law tend to be very objective perspectives on the KI, but this presents a very limited view of the situation

- It all boils down to the ethical implications Authority Figure - Responsibility/duty vs. Personal agendas

- Mix personal life with professional life
- Duty ethics?

- Manipulation of supporters -> abuse of power In November 2007, Singapore's Charity Council introduced the code of governance to ensure accountability and boost confidence in the charity sector.

In 2011, the code was fine-tuned to provide greater clarity and compliance. This included tightening the distinction of roles between board and staff members. The code also makes clear that the salaries of the three highest paid staff should be disclosed for large charities that receive S$10 million or more.

"You can have whatever code in place. If the leaders ignore the code and do not comply, which I believe in this case happened, no code, whatever the type, is going to do the job." Supporters of Authority Figure - Biased towards the authority -> duty ethics (justify the decisions of the authority figure even though they may be ethically wrong)

- Tendency to have 'blind faith' in the authority figure. "We are all very concerned... because, (after all) the people who are charged are our leaders. But we trust in their integrity, and we trust that the law is fair," said one church member. Selection Committee - What the most utilitarian decision is may not be the most democratic one - NKF scandal
- Hitler?
- Were there any limitations in this investigation?

Are there other real life issues that are related?

Are there areas for further research? PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT
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