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Green Building Seminar 2011

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Rita Barata

on 30 March 2011

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Transcript of Green Building Seminar 2011

Green Building Seminar 2011 Assoc Prof Lee Siew Eang Techinal Coordinator Singapore Green Building Council
(SGBC) Mr Willi Krebser Chief Engineer EnEd Asia Pte.Ltd. Assoc Prof Yu Shi-Ming Head of the Department
of Real Estate (DRE)
School of Design & Environment National University of Singapore Dr Chua Yang Liang National Director Head of Research, South East Asia Head of Research & Consultancy Singapore Jones Lang LaSalle Dr Richie Lee Executive Director, Energy and Sustainability - Asia CB Richard Ellis (CBRE) Asia Mr Noel Chin Senior Assistant Director, National Human Resource Division Ministry of Manpower Mr Mann Young Head of Sustainability, Asia Lend Lease Mr Patrick Foong Managing Director Equation Energy Pte Ltd Mission and focus Phase 1 Product Listing Phase 2 Development of robust and accurate
green building product assessment criteria Phase 3 Comprehensive database of green building
product to integrate with BCA Green Mark Scheme Assessment for Green Mark point award Green Product Listing

-Launched on 19 March 2010

-Classification of Products for ease of search (energy, water, indoor environment, environmental protection & other green building features and innovations
- 54 companies, close to 100 products Material Content - Reused or salvaged material
- Recycled
- Rapidly renewable
- Bio-based
- Non - toxic Processing/
Manufacturing of Products/
Materials - Process that use minimal water and energy
- Assembly time reduces material needs
- Production produces minimal air, water,
and waste emissions Contributes to a reduction
in impact - Products that save energy or water - More reduction of building
environmental impact - Reduce human health impact Life Cycle
- Reuse of material - Longevity of material - End of life issues (reuse, desconstruction, recyclability,
product and/or packaging take back) http://www.sgbc.sg/ SINGAPORE GREEN BUILDING
PRODUCT CERTIFICATION Green Building Product Certification Raw Green Building Products Maintenance Raw Material
production Manufacturing Installed Product Demolition and
Disposal Energy Efficiency Water Efficiency Resource Efficiency Carbon Emission Mitigation Pollution Avoidance Task forces and product groups Mechanical Chillers, Motors, Pumps and Auto tube cleaning system Energy Efficiency Products that save energy via
good energy efficiency. Environment Products that contribute to a safe and built environment in terms of noise control. Company ISO certification, green initiatives, innovative features inclusive of third-party certification can be considered Cooling Tower Air Handling Unit Fan Coil Unit Variable Speed Drive Electrical Phase 1 - Electronic Ballast, Transformers and LV Switchboards Electronic Ballast for fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps Ballast for HID lamps LED lamps LV Electrical Switchboard Phase 2 - Looks into Product Environmental Profile & Lifecycle assessment Facade & Envelope Phase 1 - Paints & Coating
and Window film Paints & Coating
Emission (VOCs, etc) Health issues (Toxity) Pollution, Ozone Depleting Substances, Resources Energy Saving Properties (solar reflectance, thermal insulations) Carbon emission Window Films (minimize solar heat gain) Solar coefficient & solar heat gain coefficient Luminous efficacy Visible light reflectance Ultra-violet rejection Toxic content Reciclability Warranty Phase 2 - Looks into glazing and cladding Concrete and Structures Phase 1 - Cement Category: Portland ciment and inter-ground/ blended mixtures of Portland cement with other materials - fly ash, slag, naturally occurring pozzolanic materials Life cycle assessement (LCA) approach Multi- environmental attributes assessment Semi-quantitative evaluation Products and practices appraisal Phase 2 (development) Ready mix concrete
Pre-cast concrete - internal partition, facade
Pre-cast concrete - flooring
Steel/ reinforcement bars
Pre-mixed mortar systems - tile adhesive, plasters, skim coat, screed.
Interior Works & Finishes Phase 1 Ceilings - Mineral Fibreboard, Gypsum Plasterboard, Calcium Silicate & metal Drywalls - Gypsum Plasterboard Insulating Materials - Rockwool, Fiberglass & Polystyrene Composite Wood Products Access Flooring Panels Finishes
Adhesive and Wall covering Adhesive - Human health exposure - absence of reproductive toxins.
- Volatile organic compounds.
- Prohibitive substances. Wall coverings - Avoid toxic or other emissions.
- Conserves natural resources.
- Saves energy and water.
- Contributes to a safe, healthy built environment
Floor coverings Recycled Materials Concern - Capability of processing plant
- Quality of finished products
- Environmental impacts of the production of recycled materials Phase 1 - Construction and demolition waste - Process spent cooper slag - Wood waste INNOVATIVE GREEN BUILDING CONCEPTS IN EUROPE AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE TROPICS IMPACT OF BCA'S GREEN MARK ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY VALUES Background Singapore's Green Mark Scheme Motivation and Objectives Past Studies Data and Methodology Results and Findings Valuation Standards for Green Buildings "Green" defined - "... increases the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy, water and materials, and reduces building impacts on human health and evironment through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and waste removal through the complete building cycle." Green Building Movement (GBM) started as early as the 19th century in the UK and US. Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 2005 set binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European Comunity for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Buildings are responsible for an estimated 30 to 40% of all primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation (United Nations Environment Program - UNEP, 2008). Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indentifies buildings as having the single largest potential of any sector for the reduction of greenhouse gases (IPCC, 2007) Green Mark Scheme was introduced in January 2005 - buildings can be rated the award of Platinum, Gold (PLUS), Gold or Certified. - 80% of the buildings to be certified green by 2030, including existing buildings.

- As owners and developers contemplate and/ or retrofitting green features, impetus for studying the effects of such green features on operating costs, rental and capital values, and transaction prices.

- Impact on values and valuation. Motivation Objectives - Determine if there is a price differential between green and non-green residential properties and the efects of different green labels.

- To establish if other significant variables such as tenure would yield similar results.

- To ascertain the need for green valuation guidelines. Impact of Green on Prices Fuerst and McAllister (2008) - three main drivers of price differences between certified and non- certified buildings: 1) Certified buildings offer benefits to occupiers in relation to business productivity, image and occupancy costs.

2) Due to these occupier benefits, certified buildings can result in steeper rents and lower holding costs for investors.

3) Certified buildings may require a lower risk premium. Eichholtz, Kok and Quigley (2009) - an analysis of the economic values of certified green buildings in the US based on a sample of 10.000 subject and control buildings is carried out. The locational attributes of Energy Star and LEED - rated office buildings are matched with their respective characteristics and the folowing results are obtained: A building with an Energy - star certification rented for an estimated 3% more per square foot; the difference in effective rent is estimated to be 6%. The increment to the selling price may be as much as 16%. A 10% decrease in energy consumption leads to an increase in effective rent of about 20 basis points and an increase in value of about 2%, over and above the rent and value premium for a certified building. The monetary value of the link between energy savings and asset values suggest that the intangible effects of the "green label" beliefs about worker productivity or improved corporate image are also important in determining the value of green buildings. Deng, Li and Quigley (2010) - a study of the economic returns to energy-efficient investments in Singapore's housing market. This is a preliminary study where it aims to estimate the economic impact of the Green Mark Scheme on Singapore's residential sector. - A total of 62,434 transactions were analized, and two-stage research design was used in it's empirical analysis. In the first stage, a hedonic model is used which includes fixed effects for each of the 656 individual projects. In the second stage, the fixed effects estimated for each project are regressed on the locational attributes of the projects, as well as Green Mark controls.

The results show that the economic returns to green building are significant. Methodology To test the hypotheses, we need to compare the value differences between two otherwise identical housing units: one with green mark and one without green mark. The dificulties are:
1) The green mark scheme only started in 2005; hence not many residential buildings have obtained green marks as compared with a large number of transactions in private housing market; and

2) Typically, a hedonic function is used to estimate premium by controlling the rest of hedonic factors and that dummy variables are used to quantify the green mark factor; these may not fully represent the multiple factors that may affect house price. 3 measures are adopted to solve the problems: - First, we carefully select the samples, hoping that each green development is matched with an otherwise identical non-green development. - Second, we adopt an advanced geo-statistic hedonic model in order to estimate the coefficients more accurately.
- Third, for presale data, we estimate the green premium against yearly data. For resale data (small sample size), we estimate the green premium against all year data. Transaction data obtained from the Real Estate Information System (REALIS). Only new condominium sale transactions (i.e. both pre-sale and sub-sale) that ocurred between January 2005 and May 2010 in the central region of Singapore. The condominiums in the central region are typically of higher quality due to its prime location and therefore prices tend to be higher. Consequently, this also means that the quality of green and non-green residential condominiums in the central region is comparable to one another. Completion year is not considered in this sample since only new condominium transactions are analysed. 17,899 sale transactions comprising 60 Green Mark condominiums amounting to some 7,240 transactions and 100 non-green condominium projects are also identified and these account for a total of 10,659. Besides price, the transaction records also include floor area, floor level, contract year, tenure and postal district. A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE BENEFIT OF
WATER EFFICIENCY ENERGY AND ATMOSPHERE MATERIALS AND RESOURCES INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INOVATION IN DESIGN OR OPERATION Intent - Encourage good stewardship of the land and the minimizing of any adverse project impacts on surrounding areas during and after construction Encourage tenants to select buildings that employ sustainable best practices and strategies.

Give preference to urban site with pedestrian access to a variety of existing services and infrastructure.

Select a building with minimized car parking capacity and include limited parking inclusions in the lease to reduce automobile use.

Select a building with transportation amenities such as bicycle racks and shower/ changing facilities or add them as part of tenant fit-out.

Use cool roofing strategies to reduce heat island effect.

Design lighting to prevent excessive emissions to the night sky. Intent - Encourage the thoughtful use of water. The focus is on reducing water waste, not restricting use. Use high - efficiency fixtures Use water-free urinals Consider using other sources of water (e.g. rainwater) for non-potable applications. Check for water leakages Indoor plumbing fixture and fitting Use native plants that require minimal irrigation. Use micro-irrigation (exclude sprinklers and high-pressure sprayers). Use of water-treatment devices Passive Design is the control of ventilation and temperature without using any products that consume energy. Site specific considerations during design: - Latitude and Sun path

- Seasonal variations in solar gain (cool or heating degrees days, solar insolation, humidity)

- Diurnal variations in temperature

- Micro-climate details related to breezes, humidity, vegetation and land contour.

- Obstructions/ Over-shadowing - to solar gain or local cross-winds Design strategy in warm - humid climates | Created: 21 Mar 2000 | Updated: 21 Mar 2000 | By: Sam C M Hui (cmhui@hku.hk ) | Chilled Water Temperature set point can be increased especially for Chiller experiencing partial load conditions, increasing chiller efficiency and achieves energy savings One method for chilled water temperature reset is to monitor the position of the control valves on the cooling coils. The coil that is open the most can be used to reset the temperature and the chilled water temperature can be reset upwards gradually until this control valve reaches a preset value of maximum "permisible" openness. Automatic Tubes Cleaning System Introducing specially structured cleaning "sponge balls" into the condenser water tubes to continuously clean the insides of condenser water tubes, removing foulings and dirts, and thus improves water flow, improves heat transfer and achieves energy savings for chiller compressors. Automatic Tubes Cleaning System In modern construction, the key challenge is to choose materials that can reduce burdens to the environment. The construction industry must recognise that Turning wastes into resourses also help to reduce disposal problems for Singapore Cooper Slag Construction, Renovation and Demolition Waste Internal partition Wall using Recycled Aggregates Goodwood Residence Project by GuocoLand Limited was recently awarded the “BCA Green Mark (Platinum) Award” for being the pioneer in using this Compac Green Wall technology to reuse the materials from their old buildings into their new buildings. The "Indoor Environmental Quality" category seeks to ensure that the building has optimal lighting, termal comfort, and healthy indoor-air-quality for their occupants. Use adjustable features such as termostats or operable windows to maintain occupants' termal comfort. Maintain proper ventilation and filtration for HVAC systems. Implement outdoor air delivery monitoring. Install CO2 sensor. Use low-emitting (low VOC) materials, adhesives, paints and finishes. Install entryway systems such as grates to prevent ocupant-borne contaminants from entering the building. Maximize daylight and views for occupants The "Innovation in Design" category provides an opportunity to add in additional features and earn additional points for performance that exceeds LEED requirements. Sustainable design strategies amd solutions are constantly evolving and improving. The purpose of this category is to recognize projects for innovative building features and new and creative sustainable building knowledge. Integrated Build Design Process Using Green Building Certification system such as LEED, 3 Star or Green Mark, BREEAM, DGNB, etc as a guideline and measurement tool, and when coupled with integrated design process, proper design judgment, management, user behaviour, maintenance, continuous monitoring, measurements and improvements (and other conventional wisdom) would significantly ensure that sustainability will be realized and substancial benefits can be achieved. Doing Well by Doing Good Two recent studies released in 2008 - one by the New Buildings Institute and one by the Costar Group: LEED certified buildings: Energy savings = 25% - 50% Rent value = USD 10/sq ft Occupancy = 4% Sales Value = USD 170/ sq ft Sustainability Trends Now & the immediate future: Energy efficiency is most financially attractive;
Energy strategy/ management consulting; In the near future (3-5 years): Comprehensive Green Building Certification becomes the norm (e.g. LEED, Green Mark);
Energy + Green building strategy/ management consulting; In the more distant future (5-10 years) Comprehensive sustainable design and consulting;
"Intelligent + Green" buildings;
Intelligent monitoring systems;
Preventive Maintenance MINISTRY OF MANPOWER'S JOURNEY TOWARDS ATTAINING GREEN MARK PLATINUM Vision and mission The Ministry of Manpower is an environmentally-friendly organization where best practices and innovative green measures are adopted to reduce our carbon footprint, creating an environmentally-responsible workplace. M Minimizing our carbon foot print as much as possible by practicing the 3 R's: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle O Optimizing energy and water efficiency by continous improvements in our processes and prcatices. M Motivating our people in developing environmental awareness through various platforms and programs. To cultivate environmentally-conscious MOMers through our Corporate Social Responsibility efforts, and a sustainable environmentally-friendly workplace for all MOMers. A Green MOM Background 23 year old building that was designed for a shopping mall. Inefficient chiller system whch is more than 23 years old! - Inefficient & consuming high amount of energy (250, 454 KWh/mth & chilled water supply temperature at 14 degrees);

- Environmentally unfriendly (using R11 refrigerant);

- Unable to cope with increase in cooling demand due to increase in staff strength, visitors and equipments;

- Office layout is not economical. Poor space planning with varying workstation sizes.

- Rooms aligned against windows blocking out natural lighting into office space.

Departments enclosed within their own space "living in thge - Inefficient & consuming high amount of energy (250, 454 KWh/ mth & chilled water supply temperature at 14 degrees);

- Environmentally unfriendly (using R11 refrigerant);

- Unable to cope with increase in cooling demand due to increase in staff strength, visitors and equipments;

- Office layout is not economical. Poor space planning with varying workstation sizes.

- Rooms aligned against windows blocking out natural lighting into office space.

Departments enclosed within their own space "living in their own world". Dublication of facilities (eg. photocopiers, pantries). Unable to control lighting and air-conditioning. Guaranteed Energy Savings
Performance Contract Funding was approved in 2004 for the replacement of the air conditioning system. MOM chose to pilot the EDB and NEA Guaranteed Energy Savings Project for Public Sector Facilities making MOM the first Ministry to embark on the GESP contract. CHILLER PLANT LIGHTING SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE WATER FITTINGS, USAGE AND METERING PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND WASTE MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBLE PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND RRR INDOOR ENVIRONMENT QUALITY CONDENSATE WATER ENERGY RE-GENERATIVE UNIT Reduction in Energy Consumption Redution in Water Consuption High efficiency chillers with smaller chillers to cater for low loads after office hours; Pumps & Cooling Towers fitted with Variable Speed Drive (VSD) to support load variations.

Pre-cool AHUs to extract humidity and reduce fresh air temperature intake.

Use of Chilled Water FCUs for Data Centre for greater savings.

Energy Management System (EMS) to monitor energy consumption. Introduce natural light into office by adopting and suplement with T8 lights with electronic ballast;

Timer controlled lightings through BMS;

Photovoltaic sensors to control perimeter lightings;

Zoning of office lightings and bypass switches for after office hours usage;

T5 lights with electronic ballast for basement carpark;

LED lights for foyer area;

Motion sensors to trigger toilet lightings. Use of fittings with "Excellent" Water Efficient Labelling System (WELS) ratings fpr all fixtures and sanitary. Sub-metering linked to Building Management System (BMS) for monitoring of water consumption. Use of NEWater for flushing,
sprinkler & irrigation systems, cooling towers. NEWater is treated wastewater that has been purified using dual-membrane (via microfiltration and reverse osmosis and ultraviolet technologies, in addition to conventional water treatment processes. The water is potable and is consumed by humans, but is mostly used for industry requiring high purity water. The Singapore Water Reclamation Study (NEWater Study) was initiated in 1998 by the Public Utilities Board (PUB) and the Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (MEWR). The aim of this study was to determine if NEWater was a viable source of raw water for Singapore's needs. NEWater and desalination were explored as means to reduce reliance on water imported from Malaysia, which has been a source of friction over the years. Also, while the Malaysian government is bound by two treaties to sell Singapore water until 2011 and 2061, it is under no obligation to do so after these dates.

Procurement guidelines specifying environmentally friendly products that are certified under the Singapore Green Labelling Scheme (SGLS) and equipments with energy star ratings in our procurement practices.
100% recyclable office carpets and chairs Recycling of paper, plastics, cans and ink cartridges Use of environmentally friendly refrigerants (R134a) and installation of leak detection system;

Use of environmentally friendly fire supression system for data centre from FM200 to nitrogen which contains less harmful substances. Air conditioning system designed to ensure consistent indoor conditions and thermal comfort. Indoor temperature between 24 deg C to 25.5 deg C and RH<70% through BMS controls.

CO monitoring systems for AHU intake Re-use of condensate water from Pre-Cool AHUs Optimize cooling tower performance to reduce evaporation and drift losses by 15%

Recovery of condensate water as make-up water to cooling towers Save 383 Cu. M per month Lifts installed with VVVF (Variable Voltage Variable Frequency) and Energy Re-generative Unit. This reduce energy consumption by 3,468 kwh/mth (40% reduction from previous consumption) Reduction in Energy Consumption Overal reduction of 5,292 CuM/yr after installing water efficient fittings; Reduction of 3,624 CuM/yr compared to 2009 figures which translates to $6,084; Cost savings of $454,009 (based on existing tariff of $0,23/kwh). Reduction in Water Consuption Overall reduction of 5,292 CuM/yr after installing water efficient fittings;

Reduction of 3,624 CuM/yr compared to 2009 figures which translates to $6,084;

Cost avoided for converting to NEWater (based on existing tariff of $1.56/CuM for NEWwater and $2.081/CuM for domestic water) is $11,388 GREEN RETROFITTING - A RESPONSIBLE INVESTOR'S PERSPECTIVE Property Sector - Global Environmental Impacts Buildings are responsible for 40% of world's global greenhouse gas emissions Buildings are responsible for 40% of solid waste generation globally Buildings use 12% of the world's water Air quality in buildings typically contains up to 5x more polutants than outdoor air Buildings utilize
1/3 of the world's resources. Lend Lease - Sustainability Philosophy Building Managers See Higher Tenant
Satisfaction After Green Upgrades Investor
Demand Future Proofing
Asset Value Corporations
wishing to compete
for government
tenders Government

Green lease
requirements Tenant Demand Competitive
Advantage Established
Benchmark Investor
value Green Buildings - Key Drivers in the Market Use adjustable features such as thermostats or operable windows to maintain occupants' thermal comfort.

Maintain proper ventilation and filtration for HVAC systems.

Implement outdoor air delivery monitoring. Install CO2 sensor.

Use low-emitting (low VOC) materials, adhesives, paints and finishes.

Install entryway systems such as grates to prevent occupant-borne contaminants from entering the building.

Maximize daylight and views for ocupants. Interior Systems Phase 2 GREENING OF STRATA - TITLED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS IN SINGAPORE Conclusions Key findings - Green mark residential buildings - Higher premium for higher level pf certification;

- Increase in premium over time reflecting increasing awareness

- Resale premium higher than pre-sale premium reflecting benefits of green features. More research needs to be undertaken
to provide a better understanding of the differences between green and non-green. - Cost and benefits need to be quantifiable such that not only developers are able to analyze the feasibility, users and owners are able to decide the premium that they would pay;

- More detailed information and public awareness of green buildings especially how the features could enhance the living environment would help the market to be more efficient in it's pricing mechanism;

- Ensure that all the stakeholders proactively recognize and account for the difference between green and non-green buildings. Green features to be highlighted - Benefits and savings that can be reaped can then be more effectively taken into account in the valuation process;

- The higher costs of incorporating these green features could also be taken into account either as part of feasibility analysis or as part of a residual valuation calculation;

Direct Comparison Method - Comparables must be of similar grade

- Green features listed Income Method - Whether and how the income and expenditure cashflows are affected- The discount rate premium offered by the green mark certification Other issues - Issue of building life cycle- significant impact on the maintenance costs and the projected income flow of the property. Implications of Results Developers in Singapore do seem to be placing a premium on green in general;

Premium in the range of under 10% except for Platinum and seems to increase with higher level of certification;

Increase in premium over time;

Resale transactions seem to enjoy higher premium than pre-sale transactions;

Differentiation between green and non-green implies the need for different valuation standards Rockwool scope of criteria "Green Real Estate Worth More, Say Major Companies"
(posted on February 9th 2011 [Source: REJournal OnLine] According to the fourth annual Sustainability Survey cunduted by CoreNet Global and Jones Land, LaSalle, half of corporate real estate executives will "pay extra for space in green buildings". The survey also indicated that "sustainability" plays a major role in how business select office space, with 64% of respondents saying that this factor is a "critical business issue" and 92% citing it as criteria in location decisions. Fully 50% percent were willing to pay more for green leased space in 2010 - a 13% jump from 2009. Interestingly, the prespective on green office space has changed as well. Dan Probst, Jones Lang LaSalle's chairman of energy and sustainability services, says that just a few years ago, sustainability would have been viewd in many cases as a "costly way to make the company look good". Even as recentlyas two years ago, it might have been viewed as a way to save money in the short run, but now "porsuing green strategies can enhance employee productivity," he said. Interesting, green strategies are being viewed as a way to actually stabilize budgets and the economy this year. 23% of respondents (on top of the original 50%) said that more rent would be acceptable if it were offset by lower energy costs.

Futhermore, the strategies are increasingly being viewed as a way to pay for ownership of space rather than leasing, and green spaces may ultimately tend toward longer, more stable ownership trends than other types of retail and commercial space simply because they enable a company to "pay itself" for a real estate investment while also demonstrating a commitment to sustainability. Equity + Financing
Rent/ Other Incomes
Taxation + Other Costs Standard Investment
Return ($ x) Open Savings
Rent/ Income growth
Sunk "Green" Capex
Gov Incentives Incremental Return
via Green Value
Creation ($ y) Standard Return

Incremental Return Superior
[$x + $y] Existing
Stock Tenants &
Mindset Business
as Usual Alternate
Solutions Strata
stock Green Buildings Key Challenges Integrated Approach
... Begin with the End in mind... Building
Users comissioning
Agent Project
Manager Mechanical
Engineer Construction
Contractor &
Inspector Electrical
Engineer INterior
Designer Architect Landscape
Architect &
Site Planner Building
Operator Building
Owner Energy
Consultant End
User Green Lease = Sustainable Operations + Sustainable Tenants Investment Logic - Green Initiatives The investment implications of increasing interest in environmental issues If... Tenants prefer to occupy
green buildings Investment implications Underlying effects on "green"
assets Rental differentials should
emerge between green and
non-green buildings. Either rental growth higher or
asset depreciation lower Tenants prefer to occupy
green buildings Green assets re-let more
quickly Shorter interruptions to cash-
flow should attract lower risk
premium Green buildings are cheaper
to run More tenant money is
available for rent Rental growth should be
higher for "green" buildings Impending government
regulation and legislation Greener assets become
de-risked because they are more attractive to and retain tenants better Risk premium is lower than
for "brown" buildings Investors prefer "green"
buildings Green proprieties prove
quicker to transact Green properties are more
liquid and should, therefore, attract a lower risk premium. Topics for efficient buildings The insulation of the walls


Cooling recovery out of the controlled air exchange
Fresh air blown from the ceiling and mixed with the air in the room. Disadvantage:

Air change rate 4-8 times per hour,
principle of thinning, the air inside the
room never gets really fresh =
Sick Building Syndrome Disadvantage:

Temperature of incomming air in
summer is ~16 . C

Higher investment
Higher runnung costs The air enters the room near the floor, moves upwards around heat sources, takes heat and harmful substances and leaves the room on upper level. Advantage

Air changed rate 1-3 times per hour,
principle of displacement,
less mixture between fresh and used air. Advantage:

Temperature of incoming air in summer is ~20 . C

Lower investment
Lower running costs Inefficient & consuming high amount of energy (250, 454 KWh/mth & chilled water supply temperature at 14 degrees);

Environmentally unfriendly (using R11 refrigerant);

Unable to cope with increase in cooling demand due to increase in staff strengh, visitors and equipments

High maintenance cost ($192,384/ year)
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