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Copy of Pamilihan at Pamahalaan

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Alenna Dawn Magpantay

on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Pamilihan at Pamahalaan

Pamilihan at Pamahalaan
Hindi Ganap na Kompetisyon
Ang pagkakaroon ng monopoly at iba pang anyo ng hindi ganap na kompetisyon ay itunuturing na isang uri ng pakabigo ng pamilihan. Sa ganitong kalagayan, ang sistema ng pamilihan ay hindi nagreresulta sa efficient na pagbabahagi ng mga pinagkukunang-yaman. Natalakay na ang mga kaisipan tungkol sa hindi ganap na kompetisyon sa nakaraang aralin.
Externality
Isa pang anyo ng pagkabigo ng pamilihan ang mga hindi sinasadyang naibunga ng mga gawain ng mga kalahok sa pamilihan. Tinatawag itong mga externality. Ang mga externality ay namamalagi lamang sa pamiligid, ngunit walang pamilihan para dito.
Kinilala sa ekonomiks ang pamilihan bilang ideyal na sistemang pang-ekonomiya. Ito ay binubuo ng mga kalahok na nagtataguyod ng kanilang mga sariling kapakanan. Ang mga kalahok ay gumagawa ng plano upang mapabuti ang kanilang kapakanan. Magkakaiba ang mga planong nabubuo. Ang mamimili ay magsasagawa ng plano ng pagkonsumo. Ang bahay-kalakal ay nagsasagawa ng plano ng produksiyon.
pagkabigo ng pamilihan
Sa kasalukuyan, napag-alman na may mga pagkakataon na hindi kayang iwasto ng pamilihan ang sarili nitong sistema. Sa mga pagkakataong ito nakararanas ng pagkabigo ng pamilihan o market failure.
Krisis sa Ekonomiya
Noong dekada 1930, nakaranas ang United States ng depression sa ekonomiya. Ang depression ay ang mahabang panahon ng negatibong paglago ng ekomiya. Nagkaroon ng mataas na kasalatan sa demand. Maraming nalilikhang produkto na walang demand. Wala ring gustong mamuhunan.
Antas ng Panghihimasok ng Pamhalaan sa Ekonomiya
May dalawang antas ang panghihimasok ng pamahalaan sa ekonomiya. Maaaring itong maging maiit at mahina, o maging malaki at aktibong pamahalaan.
Ang maliit at "Non-activist" na Pamahalaan
Unang naipakilala ang gampanin ng pamahalaan sa isang pamilihan noong ika-18 siglo. May mga ekonomistang naniniwala sa prinsipyo ng maliit at hindi aktibistang pamahalaan (small and soft state).
Ang malaki at Aktibong Pamahalaan
Para sa ibang ekonomista, Kinakailangang maging malaki ang isang pamahalaan (big state). Ibig sabihin, kinakailangang malaki ang panghihimasok nito sa ekonomiya. Ang pamahalaan ay nararapat maging aktibo. Sisikapin nitong mapunan ang pagkukulang ng pamilihan.
Pamamaraan ng Panghihimasok ng Pamahalaan
Maraming pamamaraan upang maging malaki at aktibo ang isang pamahalaan. Una, nagtatakda ng alituntunin sa industriyal na kompetisyon ang pamahalaan ang pagpasok ng ilang bahay-kalakal. Pati presyo ng produkto ay isasaayos nito sa isang antas lamang. Tinatawag itong tight industrial regulatory regime o tight regulation.
Tight Industrial Regulatory Regime
Ipinatutupad ng pamahalaan ang tight industrial regulatory regime sa paniniwala na bubuti ang kapakanan ng mamamayan sa mga piling bahaykalakal. pinapayagan din ang monopoly.
Industrial Deregulatory Regime
Kung minsan, nabibigo ang natural monopoly na maitaguyod ang kapakanan ng mamayan. Walang kakompetensya, bibihirang pagkakataon nitong isaayos ang paglilingkod. May pagkakataon din na hindi na talaga makatuwiran ang presyo ng paglilingkod nito.
Paglahok ng Pamahalaan sa Industriya
Maaaring piliin ang pamahalaan na ito na mismo ang magpatakbo ng isang industriya. Ito ang magiging natural monopoly. Lilikha ito ng bahaykalakal na nakatuon sa paglikha ng pangunahing pangangailangan. Sa pilipinas, tinatawag na mga goverment-owned and controlled corporation (GOCC) ang mga naturang bahay-kalakal.
Pagbubuwis
Maaari ring gawin ng pamahalaan ang pagtatakda ng gamit ng buwis. Alam ng mga tao na ang pamahalaan ay lumilikom ng buwis bilang kita nito sa isang takdang panahon. Buwis ang ginagamit nito sa paghahatid ng pampublikong paglilingkod. Ngunit hindi batid ng karamihan na ang pagbubuwis ng pamahalaan ay may allocative role.
Tax Exemption at Subsidy
Maaari ring gamitin ang buwis upang maitaguyod ang kapakanan ng bawat sektor. Ang mahihirapan ay hindi na pinagbabayad ng buwis. Tax exemption ang tawag dito. Ang ilan sa kanilang mg batayang pangangailangan ay sinasagot ng mga pampublikong paglilingkod. Halimbawa nito ang libreng pag-aaral ng mahihirap sa mga pampublikong paaralan.
Programang Pangkaunlaran
Maraming pinagkukunang-yaman ang bansa. Ngunit ang ibang pinagkukunang-yaman ay pag-aari ng iilang kalahok lamang sa pamilihan. Nawawalan naman ng derektang access ang ibang kalahok sa mga ito upang matugunan ang kanilang mga pangangailangan. Ang hindi maayos na distribusyon ng pagmamay-ari ng pinagkukunang-yaman ay lumikha ng inequality. Ang patuloy na pag-angat sa buhay ng ilan habang habang naghihirap ang ilan ay tanda ng inequality.
Sequestration
May pagkakataon na sapilitang itinitigil ng pamahalaan ang negosyo ng bahay-kalakal. Ito ay sa pamamagitan ng sequestration. Nilalayon ng sequestration na itigil ang pagsasamantala ng bahay-kalakal sa mga mamimili at kapwa bahay-kalakal. Ang pagsasamantalang ito ay lumilikha at nagpapatindi ng inequality. Kadalasan, pinipili ng pamahalaan na pangasiwaan ang paglilingkod ng isang sequestered na negosyo. Ang kita naman ng sequestered na negosyo ay idinaragdag ng pamahalaan sa kaban ng bayan.
Price ceiling at Price Floor
Likas na gawi ng bahay-kalakal na itaas ang presyo ng bilihin. Palasak itong pag-uugali sa depektibong pamilihan. Isang pamamaraan ang price ceiling upang maiwasto ng pamahalaan ang mapagsamantalang pag-uugali ng bahay-kalakal. Ang price ceiling ang pinakamataas na presyo na itinakda ng pamahalaan para sa isang produkto. Tinatawag din ang price ceiling na price control.
Epekto ng Price ceiling sa Pamilihan
Reflection – Price Ceilings and Price Control
Epekto ng Price Floor sa Pamilihan
Demand, Supply, and Adjustments to Dynamic Change

This supplemental highlights how markets work and their impact on the allocation of resources. This
feature will investigate this issue in more detail. It will use graphical analysis to analyze demand,
supply, determination of the market price, and how markets adjust to dynamic change.
Concepts
Demand, Price ,ceilings,
Equilibrium, Price floors,
Invisible hand principle, Supply,
Operation of dynamic markets

Demand
The law of demand states that there is a negative relationship between the price of a good and the
quantity purchased. It is merely a reflection of the basic postulate of economics: when an action
becomes more costly, fewer people will choose it. An increase in the price of a product will make it
more costly for buyers to purchase it, and therefore less will be purchased at the higher price.
The availability of
substitutes
—goods that perform similar functions—underlies the law of demand.
No single good is absolutely essential; everything can be replaced with something else. A chicken
sandwich can be substituted for a cheeseburger. Wheat, oats, and rice can be substituted for corn.
Going to the movies, playing tennis, watching television, and going to a football game are substitute
forms of entertainment. When the price of a good increases, people will turn to substitutes and cut
back on their purchases of the more expensive good. This explains why there is a negative
relationship between price and the quantity of a good demanded.
provides a graphic illustration of the law of
demand. Price is measured on the Y-axis and quantity
on the X-axis. The demand curve will slope downward
to the right, because when the price falls, consumers
will purchase a larger quantity.
Correspondingly, an increase in price will cause buyers
to reduce the quantity of their purchases. The
demand curve isolates the impact of price.
Other factors that might influence the choices of
consumers are held constant. For example, factors
like consumer income, price of related goods, expectations about the future price, and the preferences
of consumers are held constant when the demand curve is constructed. Changes in these factors will
shift the entire demand curve.
Using beefsteak as an example, Exhibit 2 illustrates an
increase in demand, a shift in the demand curve to the right.
Think how the demand for beefsteak would be affected by an
increase in consumer income or an increase in the prices of
substitute goods like pork, chicken, or turkey. When consumer
income increases or substitute goods become more expensive,
consumers will buy more beefsteaks. This will increase the
demand for beefsteak, causing the demand curve to shift to the
right as shown in Exhibit 2. Economists refer to this shift of the
entire demand curve to the right as an “increase in demand.”
This increase in demand should not be confused with an
“increase in quantity demanded,” a movement along the same
demand curve in response to a lower price.
Now consider what would happen to the demand for beefsteak if there was a reduction in consumer
income or a decrease in the price of the substitute goods. These changes would lead to a decrease in
the demand for beef, a shift in the entire curve to the left. As we proceed, we will consider how both
increases and decreases in demand affect the market price. But before we can do that, we must
consider the supply side of markets.
Supply

The law of supply states that there is a positive relationship between the price of a good and the
quantity of it that producers will supply. Business firms and other producers purchase resources and
combine them into goods and services. The resources have alternative uses so producers will have to
pay resource owners a price sufficient to attract them from other potential users. Thus, product
suppliers will incur costs as they purchase resources. Producers are in business to make a profit. In
order to do so, they will have to supply products that can be sold
for a price that is greater than the costs of the resources required
for their production. As product prices increase, suppliers will find it
profitable to supply more and more units. This accounts for the
direct relationship between the price of a product and the quantity
supplied by producers.
Exhibit 3 displays the supply curve. It indicates the quantity of a
good that producers are willing to supply at alternative prices. The
law of supply states that this relationship is positive – that
producers will supply a larger quantity as the price of a good rises.
Thus, the supply curve for a good or service, beefsteak for
example, will slope upward to the right.
As the price of beefsteak increases, beef producers will find it profitable to produce larger quantities.
The upward sloping supply curve reflects the fact that the incentive of producers to supply beef (or
any other product) increases as its price rises.
As in the case of demand, other things are held constant when the
supply curve is constructed. Put another way, the supply curve
isolates the impact of price on the amount supplied. However,
changes in factors that influence costs will affect the position of the
supply curve. Factors that increase the cost of producing a good will cause the supply curve to shift to the left. For example, an increase in feed grain prices will make it
more expensive for farmers to produce cattle.
Demand, Supply, and the Determination of the Market Price
The forces of demand and supply combine to determine the
market price. As Exhibit 5 shows, there will be a tendency
for price to move toward a level like $8 per pound, which
will bring the quantity demanded by consumers into equality
with the quantity supplied by producers. This price, where
the demand and supply curves intersect, is often referred to
as the “equilibrium” or “market clearing” price.
Consider the equilibrium price $8 per pound in Exhibit 5.
What would happen if the price was higher than $8 per
pound? At prices higher than the market clearing price,
producers will want to supply a larger quantity than
consumers are willing to purchase. This would lead to an
excess supply and place downward pressure on price.
Thus, above equilibrium prices will not be sustainable.
Ang Gampaning ng Pamahalaan sa Pamilihan
Alenna Dawn P. Magpantay
IV-St. Albert the Great
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