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The Freshwater Biome

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Kim Stein

on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of The Freshwater Biome

Endangered Species
There are many species becoming endangered in the freshwater biome due to human activities such as pollution. Mussels(2/3⅔), crayfish(½1/2), stoneflies (40%), dragonflies(18%) and damselflies(18%) are all at risk of extinction. Minnows and sawfish. are being endangered because of agricultural and industrial run-off.
The Freshwater Biome
Abiotic Factors
Positive Human Impacts On Freshwater Biome
Humans have a positive impact on freshwater biome. Humans create national parks that help ensure some species will not become extinct. They also create regulations and laws that protect these parks. There are laws that state one can only fish certain types and amount of a fish, and where they can fish which helps freshwater biomes stay alive.
Invasive Species
Biome Location
Any pond, stream, river, or lake can be considered a freshwater biome.
Freshwater can be found all over the world
Ex: The Great Lakes, Lake Victoria, Lake Baikal, The Nile, The Amazon, The Banges River
Endangered and Invasive Species
Invasive species are non-native animals that when introduced to a new habitat, They disrupt the natural balance of the habitat. There have been many types of Asian Carp found in freshwater biomes in the U.S. These carp have depleted food sources and competed with indigenous fish species.
Average precipitation
The average anual rainfaill in freshwater biomes is 10 - 80 inches per year. The amount of rainfall depends on the climate of the biome.
Average Temperature
The temperature during the summer ranges from 65°F to 75°F

The temperature during the winter ranges from 35°F and 45°F

The average temperature decreases with depth.
Sunlight contitions
The uppermost level of freshwater biomes, epilimnion, recieves the most sunlight. The deepest layer, hypolimnion, recieves no sunlight. There is a layer called the thermocline, in this layer the temperature decreases rapidly. When there is less light, there is less diversity of flora.
The Great Lakes
The Nile River
The Amazon River
Dependant on season
Layers of bodies of water may differ in heat during Summer and Winter (Surface temperatures more extreme and bottom layers more moderate)
Thermocline- Zone between two layers. Temperature changes frequently
During Spring and Fall winds cause top and bottom layers to mix leaving thermocline at a constant temp of 4 degrees C
Mixing also results in oxygen circulation throughout body of water
Precipitation has an important role in creating and maintaining Freshwater biomes

Water cycle- Fresh water evaporates, carried over land, pecipitation, runoff into lakes
Water Characteristics
Static (lakes and ponds) or Dynamic (rivers and streams)
Air flow and seasonal changes give lakes some movement
Turnover- in Autumn surface lowers i temp and sinks, bottom layers move up - regulates temperature of lakes
Extremely low salinity controls species
Impact Of Climate Change
Since Global Warming is almost impossible to stop, the increase of temperature increases the evaporation rate of freshwater. This endangers the species living in and around the water, and is eliminating habitats for many species.
Seasonal Variability
The water in freshwater biomes changes each season. The water during the summer is generally warmer than the water in the winter.
Threats To Biome
Dam Building
Creates barracades for fish to travel, and therefore are unable to reproduce and will eventually become extinct.
Over Fishing
Some fish are easier to catch, while others are more profitable for fisherman. Either way, when there is an abuse of catching a certain type of fish, extinction becomes apparent. As well as a disruption in an ecosystem.
Global Warming
Because of global warming, water is evaporating faster and endangering many freshwater biomes.

Negative Impacts
Humans withdrawing water from these habitats causes these biomes to degrade and shrink in size. (Dam Buildings)

Run off from agricultural and urban areas causes a decrease in quality of water.

Global warming caused by human activity can produce floods/droughts can produce exotic species which can harm native animals
Global Importance
Water is the basis of life, countless species live in it for all or part of their lives. Freshwater biomes supply us with our drinking water and water for crop irrigation. Water has a high capacity for heat, and because the Earth is mostly covered with water, the temperature of the atmosphere is kept fairly constant and able to support life (due to the oceans.) The oceans contain several billion photosynthetic plankton which account for most of the photosynthesis occuring on Earth. Without these, there might not be enough oxygen to support such a large world population and complex animal life.
Native Plants and Adaptations
Pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), Mare's-tail (Hippuris vulgaris) and Quillwort (Isoetes)
Submersed Plants
Emersed Plants
Cattails (Typha), Giant reed (Phragmites australis), Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) and Water Plantain (Alisma)
In fast streams and rivers plants have structures that keep them from being carried away by the water (strong roots that keep them anchored securely, stems that bend easily with the movement of the water, certain mosses able to cling to rocks)
Dense fibrous material running through the stems for support
Large areas of air tissue within them for gaseous exchange, leaves have stomata on the upper epidermis rather than the lower surface
Air is drawn in through the leaves and transported to the roots through air tissue to enable respiration for roots in mud
Floating Plants
Water Lily (Nymphaea odorata), Cape-Pondweed (Aponogeton distachyon), Floating Heart (Nymphoides), Water Chestnut (Trapa natans) and Victorian Water Lily (Victoria regia)
Native Animals and Adaptations
In fast moving waters animals that have to hold onto rocks and the bottom may have suction-cup like structures on their bodies
Fish with adaptaions to swim upstream or up waterfalls
Toleration of oxygen conditions
Osmotic Regulation (salt uptake, urination of water, "Freshwater kidney")
Innate movement towards sunlight and Oxygen
Conform Resperatory surfaces
Daphina-eggs develop without fertilization (female only populations favorable conditions) but use fertilization to produce "winter eggs" with a shell that can withstand harsh conditions.
Johnston crocodile, River otter, Ruddy Duck, American Bullfrog, Gobies, Catfish, Trout, Ticks leeches, Mosquitos, salamanders, Water Moccasins, Box Turtle, Snapping Turtle, Cranes, Herrons
Cooperation and Competition
Both freshwater snails and Anuran tadpoles feed on periphytic algae.
In nearly all lakes across the world, algae and fungi work together to form communities called lichens
Many species of pondweed provide protection and shelter to numerous species of fish
Algae and freshwater hydroids find substrates on the shells of organisms like freshwater snails, some crustaceans, and turtles which benefit from camouflage
Midwestern turtle species that are cleaned by leeches which eat debris from shells
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