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Transcript of GMO:
see how GMO paved its way to fit in the picture
Genetic Modification: how is it done?
GMO through the years
Tuesday, March 4, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
- organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques
Gene Splicing- process in which the fragments of DNA from one or more different organisms are combined to form recombinant DNA
: world and Philippine setting
GMOs are not all good!
Microbes are particularly important in producing large amounts of pure human proteins for use in medicine
Genetically modified bacteria used to produce:
Protein insulin to treat diabetes
Produce biofuels, clotting factors to treat hemophilia
Produce human growth hormone to treat various forms of dwarfism
Blue “Suntory” Rose
The Philippines has been approving applications for GMO since 2004. These include GMO corn that have been banned from other countries.
Plant GMO in the Philippines
GM crops- genetically engineered crops in order to attain desirable traits such as:
Resistance to pests
Resistance to herbicides
Resistance to pathogens
Increased nutritional value
Production of biofuels
Production of valuable goods such as drugs, materials, etc
Being able to thrive in environmental conditions outside the species’ native range
Extended product shelf life
Transgenic plants -plants that have been engineered for scientific research, to create new colors in plants, and to create different crops
Monsato’s genetically modified corns
Genetically modified trees
uses and applications
Pollution fighting plants
Glow in the dark cats
Genetically modifies animals currently being developed can be placed into six different broad classes based on the intended purpose of the genetic modification:
1. to research human diseases
2. to produce industrial or consumer products
3. to produce products intended for human therapeutic use
4. to enrich or enhance the animals interaction with humans
5. to enhance production or food quality traits
6. to improve animal health
“Dolly” first animal clone
“fluorescent cats” Glow in the dark cats
Web spinning goat
Human Gene Therapy
Gene therapy uses genetically modified viruses to deliver genes that can cure diseases in humans.
Gene therapy is used to treat genetic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency and Leber’s congenital amaurosis.
Treatments are also being developed for a range of other currently incurable diseases such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Parkinson’s disease, cancer, diabetes, heart disease and muscular dystrophy
Fruit flies are model organisms used to study the effects of genetic changes on the development.
In 2010, scientists created “malaria resistant mosquitoes” in the laboratory
Genetically modified male mosquitoes containing a lethal gene have been developed in order to combat spread of Dengue fever.
Bollworms has been developed that contains a fluorescent marker in their DNA. This allows researchers to monitor bollworms that have been sterilized by radiation and released in order to reduce bollworm infestation.
Cnidarians such as hydra and sea anemone have become attractive model organisms to study the evolution of immunity and certain developmental processes.
Fish used for scientific research and for pets, and are being considered for use as food and as aquatic pollution sensors.
Sudden death mosquito
Fast growing salmon
Glittering gold seahorses
GMOs involved organisms which are product of selective breeding but generally, they now refers to as organisms undergone genetic modification like mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes with the help of modern biotechnology
digging into the process of genetic engineering
Desired gene is isolated->
DNA of Organism A ->
Desired gene is inserted to DNA
of Organism B ->
looking at the other side of the coin
Harmful to Human Health
-GM ingredients can cause cancer.
-Since GE foods are not labeled, the public has no way of knowing if the food that they buy contains genes from species that they are allergic to.
-Most crops are engineered to produce their own pesticide in the form of Bacillus thurengiensis (Bt). Bt is used by organic farmers as a least-toxic alternative to control bugs. The modified genes in engineered crops that resist pesticides can transfer to insects and pests; making them pesticide resistant.
-Herbicide resistant crops have been shown to cross-pollinate with weeds in the same family, creating super-weeds that are also resistant to herbicides.
-Pollen from GE crops has the potential to drift.
-If organic farmers' crops become polluted with genetically engineered pollen, they may be subject to loss of their organic certification and financial losses
Harm to Wildlife
-Monarch butterfly caterpillars are harmed by consuming Bt corn pollen dusted on milkweed
Harm to Soil
-Bt can remain in the soil for 200+ days and can harm non-target organisms,
Religious and Moral Considerations
-by genetically engineering our food and taking DNA from one species and splicing it into another, we are essentially "playing God" with nature
GE Is Unfair to Farmers
-antibiotic marker genes are used to help with the transfer of DNA from one life form to another.
-Scientists worry that this process could lead to increased antibiotic resistance
-biotech companies accuse farmers of patent infringement
- segment of DNA containing a gene sequence that has been isolated from one organism and is introduced into a different organism
act as the scissors to cut the DNA. Thousands of varieties of restriction enzymes exist, each recognizing only a single nucleotide sequence.
a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed.
-a process that significantly increase the electrical conductivity and permeability of the cell plasma membrane caused by an externally applied electrical field. It is usually used in molecular biology as a way of introducing some substance into a cell
- acts as paste to seal broken chains of DNA
- DNA in which one or more segments or genes have been inserted, either naturally or by laboratory manipulation, from a different molecule or from another part of the same molecule, resulting in a new genetic combination.
1935 – DNA Discovered
-Russian scientist Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky isolates pure DNA.
1973 – Recombinant DNA Created
-The idea for man-made DNA, or rDNA, comes from a grad student at Stanford University Medical School.
-Professor Herbert Boyer and a few of his biologist colleagues run with it.
1982 – FDA Approves First GMO
-Humulin- insulin produced by genetically engineered E. coli bacteria, appears on the market.
1994 – GMO Hits Grocery Stores
-The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the Flavr Savr tomato for sale on grocery store shelves. The delayed-ripening tomato has a longer shelf life than conventional tomatoes.
1999 – GMO Food Crops Dominate
1997 – Mandatory Labels
-The European Union rules in favor of mandatory labeling on all GMO food products, including animal feed
-Over 100 million acres worldwide are planted with genetically engineered seeds. -The marketplace begins embracing GMO technology at an alarming rate.
2011 – Bt Toxin in Humans
-Research in eastern Quebec finds Bt toxins in the blood of pregnant women and shows evidence that the toxin is passed to fetuses.
2014 – GMO Patent Expires
-Monsanto’s patent on the Roundup Ready line of genetically engineered seeds will end in two years.
-In 2009, Monsanto introduced Roundup 2 with a new patent set to make the first-generation seed obsolete.
Ambut, Ezra Eve
Gomez, Rema Grace
Gumban, Allynne Joy
Jaena, Justine Emerald
Good Morning :)