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Unit 296 - HEALTHIER FOODS
Transcript of Unit 296 - HEALTHIER FOODS
A balanced diet in detail
A balanced diet every day
A healthy diet
The recommended balance
Healthier soft drinks
Using dairy products
Using starchy foods
The role of the caterer
1) Describe the term 'balanced diet
2) Explain 'en papillote'
3) Define unsaturated fat
4) Discuss the government initiative '5 a day'
5) List 4 healthy food substitutes
-Nutrients perform different functions in the body.
-The body needs different amounts of each nutrient. Specific figures (Dietary Reference Values) are published by the government.
-Healthy eating means selecting foods that will provide the nutrients you need.
-Measured in kilocalories (kcal) or kilojoules (kj).
-Provided by carbohydrates, fat, protein and alcohol.
-Balance the energy input from food with the energy output through activity – this helps to control body weight.
-A very concentrated source of energy – fat contains more than twice as much energy as sugar or starch.
-Should provide 30 – 35% of energy.
-Two types: saturated and unsaturated.
-Unsaturated fat is present in oily fish and foods from plants (oils, nuts and seeds).
-Unsaturated fat reduces the cholesterol level in the body.
-Two types: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.
-Present in foods from animal sources (meat, milk, butter and cheese).
-Unhealthy as it pushes up blood cholesterol.
-Switch to foods containing unsaturated fat – use oil instead of butter, eat oily fish and white meat.
PERCENTAGE OF FAT IN SOME FOODS
FATS THAT ARE MOSTLY SATURATED
-Lard, suet, dripping
-Creamed coconut and coconut oil
-Palm oil and palm kernel oil
-Full-fat milk and diary fat
Rapeseed oil (canola)
FATS THAT ARE MOSTLY MONOUNSATURATED
-Sunflower oil and spread
FATS THAT ARE MOSTLY POLYUNSATURATED
MAIN SOURCES OF FAT IN THE DIET
-Two types: starches and sugars.
-Starches occur in bread, cereal, rice, pasta and potatoes.
-Starches should provide about 50% of energy.
-Starchy foods also contain some protein, vitamins, minerals and fibre.
HOW MUCH CARBOHYDRATE SHOULD
WE TAKE IN OUR DIETS?
A diet high in carbohydrates (especially unrefined) is recommended.
HOW MUCH CARBOHYDRATE SHOULD
WE TAKE IN OUR DIETS?
-Sugars occur naturally in fruit and honey. They are added to many manufactured foods.
-Tooth plaque contains bacteria which use sugar to create acid, causing tooth decay (more than half of UK teenagers suffer).
-Need to cut down on sugars.
-The roughage in plant foods – wholegrain cereals, pulses, fruit, vegetables and nuts.
-Good for the digestive system.
-Aim to eat about 30 g per day.
-Most people only eat about 20 g per day.
MAIN SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE IN THE DIET
The ‘body-building’ nutrient found in animal and vegetable foods, such as meat, fish, cheese, eggs, cereals, pulses and nuts.
-Adults need 35 – 50 g per day. That could be provided by 100 g of chicken or 200 g of baked beans and a yoghurt.
MAIN SOURCES OF PROTEIN IN THE DIET
-Needed in minute amounts for many bodily processes.
-Obtained from food.
-The government’s Dietary Reference Values include amounts for nine vitamins and eleven minerals.
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
-Found in foods of animal origin.
-The body can make vitamin A from carotene, which is found in orange juice and some fruit and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes and apricots.
-Several important functions in the body.
-Help release energy from food.
-Found in dairy products (especially vitamin B2, riboflavin) and protein-rich foods.
Found in milk and dairy products.
-Needed for healthy bones and teeth.
MAIN SOURCES OF CALCIUM IN THE DIET
VIDEO ON HEALTHY DIETS
(dynamic-learning level 2)
-Sodium is used to maintain the water balance in the body. High intakes can raise blood pressure, increasing the risk of stroke and heart disease.
-Salt is added to many manufactured foods, especially snacks.
-Aim for about 4 g of salt per day. (The UK average is estimated at 8 g!)
The amount of salt should be stated on food labels so that total intake can be calculated.
-Reduces obesity: Nearly 24 million adults in the UK are overweight or obese.
-Prevents illness: Poor diet is linked to illness. It may be a cause of one third of all cancers.
BENEFITS OF HEALTHIER EATING
Diet can be linked to:
high blood pressure
-Food, nutrition and exercise are crucial to our health and well-being.
Making the right choices of
food and drink, as well as
taking regular exercise, can
protect us against serious
RECAP: WHY IS HEALTHY EATING IMPORTANT?
RECAP: WHY IS HEALTHY EATING IMPORTANT?
-There are no good and bad foods.
-The important thing is to eat a balanced diet.
-The Food Standards Agency provides advice. Go to: www.food.gov.uk
A HEATHY DIET
-Plenty of starchy foods – breads, cereals, pasta, potatoes, rice.
-Five portions (about 80 g each) of fruit and vegetables.
-Two or three portions each of dairy foods and meat.
Very small amounts of fats and sugars.
A BALANCED DIET EVERY DAY
Five portions of fruit and vegetables a day
THE GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE '5 A DAY'
IN TERMS OF A BALANCED DIET,
IS THIS HEALTHY FOOD?
-Two portions of fish per week. Include one of oily fish as they contain Omega 3 oil which can help thin the blood and protect the heart.
‘-Five a day’ of fruit and vegetables. This should only include:
one portion of beans or pulses
one portion of fruit juice, however much you drink.
A BALANCED DIET IN DETAIL
DEFINITION: A BALANCED DIET IS THE FOOD REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN GOOD HEALTH
THE EATWELL PLATE
THE RECOMMENDED BALANCE
-Try to balance it over a few days – not necessarily at every meal.
-Include bigger portions of starchy foods, vegetables and fruit.
-Small changes to favourite meals can make a big difference.
-There’s still scope for the occasional treat!
A BALANCED DIET IN PRACTICE
CATERING FOR HEALTHY DIETS
-Chefs can play a vital role in providing healthy, well-balanced meals.
-Make small changes to recipes and methods. Be adventurous and make healthy eating exciting.
-Many customers are looking for healthy options and will return to establishments providing ‘healthy’ food.
-In residential establishments, good, balanced nutritional meals are especially important.
-School caterers have to provide meals that meet minimum nutritional standards.
THE ROLE OF THE CATERER
-Increase quantities of starchy foods – base meals on them.
-Increase fibre quantity of meals where practical.
-Reduce fat in traditional recipes.
-Use unsaturated fat instead of saturated.
-Use moderate amounts of sugar and salt.
Increase quantities of fruit and vegetables:
-Add more to stir-fries and casseroles.
-Use as starters (asparagus, melon, vegetable soup) and desserts.
-Offer as snacks, fresh or dried.
-Offer colourful salads with meals.
-Offer fresh juices and smoothies.
To retain the vitamins:
-Steam, microwave or stir-fry in a little oil if possible.
-Peel thinly using a peeler.
-Store and cook for as short a time as possible.
-If boiling, use less water, bring it to the boil first and do not leave food sitting in the water for long periods.
PREPARING FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
-Healthy rice dishes include boiled or steamed rice, paella, risotto and pilaff.
-Try using brown rice in rice dishes.
-Don’t use too much oil with pasta.
-Use thick slices of healthy breads – wholegrain, granary, pitta – and use low-fat sandwich fillings.
USING STARCHY FOODS
-These include wholemeal and wholegrain breads, pitta, chapatti, brown rice, wholewheat pasta and wholegrain breakfast cereals.
-They contain more fibre and other nutrients than refined, starchy foods.
-They take longer to digest so we feel full for longer.
-Don’t peel potatoes, yams or cassava too deeply.
-Leave skins on potatoes if possible, for fibre.
-Bake or boil them if possible, as this is healthier than frying.
-Less healthy than baking or boiling.
-Large pieces and straight chips fried at a high temperature (155–255°C) will absorb less fat.
-Pre-blanch chips in a steamer.
-Make healthier chips by steaming, brushing with oil and then baking.
Move from saturated to unsaturated fat by:
-using olive oil instead of butter
-using ‘white’ shortening for pastry
-using coconut milk instead of creamed coconut
Reduce fat content by:
-grilling, steaming, stir-frying or baking
-using puréed vegetables instead of roux thickenings
-skimming fat off sauces
-dry frying or dry roasting spices
-using non-stick frying pans so less fat is needed.
Reduce fat content by:
-using a rack or trivet when roasting
-making sure the oil is hot enough when frying
-offering dressings separately, instead of dressing salads
-encouraging suppliers to offer low-fat alternatives.
Cut down on the fat content of meat dishes by:
-using lean meat
-trimming fat from meat, and fat and skin from poultry
-racking and draining
-using less meat and more pulses, vegetables and starchy foods
-using alternatives like tofu or Quorn.
What is this method of Cookery called?
THE HEALTHIEST COOKING METHOD IS
STEAMING. A GOOD METHOD FOR RESTAURANT FOOD IS 'EN PAPILLOTE'
-Pulses are low in fat and rich in protein, carbohydrate and fibre.
-They count as a portion of fruit and vegetables.
-They provide an important source of nutrients for vegetarians and a tasty alternative for meat-eaters.
-Add pulses to soups and stews.
-Use lower-fat versions of milk and cheese as there is no loss of calcium.
-Use a strong-tasting cheese for flavouring, but use less of it.
-Grate hard cheese for sandwiches and salads, using less.
-Replace cooking cream with yoghurt, arrowroot or cornflour to prevent separation.
-Use yoghurt in mayonnaise.
USING DAIRY PRODUCTS
-Offer some healthy choices such as sorbet and fresh fruit.
-For sponges use the fatless whisked sponge method instead of the creaming method.
-Serve single cream separately and offer alternatives such as fromage frais.
-Use fruit fillings instead of cream.
Many fizzy drinks have added sugar or preservatives and some have stimulants.
Healthier alternatives include:
-fruit juices and smoothies
HEALTHIER SOFT DRINKS
Muslim: No pork, shellfish or alcohol and only halal meat.
Hindu: No beef, and for strict Hindus no meat, fish or eggs.
Sikh: Meat and fish may be acceptable, but women in particular may be vegetarian.
Rastafarian: No pork, processed foods, fish without fins, alcohol, coffee or tea.
Jewish: No pork or shellfish – only kosher meat. Meat and milk must not be cooked or served together. Milk products may be avoided except at breakfast.
-Customers with diabetes need to avoid dishes high in sugar or fat. -Low-calorie sweeteners can be used.
-Customers on a low cholesterol diet need to avoid saturated fat. Use oils and margarines that are high in unsaturated fat. Avoid meat, shellfish, butter, liver, etc.
-Low fat diet: Avoid fatty foods, frying and roasting.
-Low salt diet: Avoid foods where salt is added during cooking (including smoking and curing) and monosodium glutamate.
-Low residue diet: Avoid wholemeal bread, brown rice and pasta, fatty foods and frying.
People with allergies need to avoid particular dangerous foods
-Nut allergy: Avoid nuts, blended cooking oils and margarines – check labels of all foods to be sure.
-Dairy intolerance: Avoid milk, butter, cheese and yoghurt – check labels of all foods to be sure.
-Some people need to exclude gluten from their diet (coeliac disease or gluten intolerance).
-Gluten is formed by the proteins in wheat and some other grains when mixed with water.
-Avoid wheat and wholemeal flour, rye, barley and oats, and any dishes made with these. These include some pasta, cheese spreads, barley-based or malted drinks, beer and some mustards and sauces.
-Use cornflour, rice, potato, corn or sage to thicken sauces.