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CNUR 106 Cognitivism

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CNUR 106

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of CNUR 106 Cognitivism

Founders Gestalt Psychology -Max Wertheimer
-Kurt Koffka
-Wolfgang Kohler -The whole is more than the sum of all its parts -Perception refers to the act of becoming aware of something by the use of any senses

-To perceive means to take notice of, observe, detect, achieve understanding of, apprehend or to become aware of in one's mind -There are 6 principles/laws for perceptual organization Cognitive Learning Theory CNUR 106 By: Cristina, Jenna & MacKenzie Overview - What is the Cognitive Learning Theory (Cognitivism)? - History of Cognitivism - Cognitive views of learning: -Gestalt Psychology -Information Processing (3 components) - Jean Piaget's 2 ways of learning -Application to scenario (Implications for Health) -Review Cognitivism History of Cognitivism Piaget's two ways of learning Information Processing Sensory Register Short-term Memory/Working Memory Long-term Memory Application to Scenario References Review Jane is 7 months pregnant and would like to learn more about different laboring techniques. What strategies would you use to teach Jane? Focus is on the cognitive process that is "how we perceive, interpret, remember and the way we think about the environment" Was inspired by advances in computers Theorists hypothesized the human mind preforms mental tasks like computers Information Processing Model 3 Components Focus on how individuals register sensory information from the environment How they process information into short-term memory How information is stored and retrieved from long term memory First Component of information processing model Receives large amounts of information from sight, hearing, touch, smell & taste (5 senses) This component decides whether or not to notice/register external sensory datum (odor, flavor, sound, visual stimulus, etc.) Decides whether or not to register sensory datum from internal stimulus (itch, chill, headache, memory, etc.) Information is quickly lost if it is given no further attention Second component of information processing model This is where sensory info goes when we pay attention to it Storage capacity is limited: only being able to hold about 5-7 thoughts Final component of the information processing model Holds an infinite amount of information for a prolonged period of time Images, facts, knowledge, learning strategies, thoughts about past experiences & general information are some of the things stored in long-term memory 2 ways of learning he identified were: Assimilation Accommodation Aisaeuniversity (n.d.). Cognitive Learning Theories. learningdomain. Retrieved from from http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/beduc/chapter_5.pdf One's ability to learn stems from the way one perceives, organizes, stores, and retrieves information Behaviorism focuses on observable behavioral changes where as understanding of learning to include cognitivism expands the internal mental processes unique to each person. Cognitivism: Gestalt Psychology: the whole is more than the sum of all its parts; 6 laws/principles: Continuity, Similarity, Figure and ground, Symmetry or Order, Proximity and Closure Piaget's two ways of learning: Assimilation, Accommodation Information Processing: the human mind works like a computer. The 3 main components: Sensory register, Short-term memory (Working memory), Long-term memory *These two ways of learning will be discussed in further presentations* History: (Miller, 2006, p.73) (Miller 2006, p. 73) (Miller, 2006, p. 74) (Miller, 2006, p. 73) (Miller, 2006, p.71) (Miller, 2006 p.70) 1. How can we implement Gestalt Psychology into educating Jane? 2. How can we implement Information Processing Model into educating Jane? Law of Figure Ground Law of Similarity Law of Continuity Miller, M. A., Stoeckel, P. R., & Babcock, D. E. (2011). Client education: Theory and practice. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Law of Proximity Law of Closure *Images are from Google* 19th Century: Experimental psychology (The beginning of Cognitivism) There was an interest in the study of higher mental processes 1950's: Now referred to as the 'Cognitive Revolution' Cognitive revolution: American psychologists rejected behaviorism Psychologists adopted a model of the mind based on a computer (Smith, 2001, p.5) Behaviorism was prominent at the time There was not talk of mental processes (Miller, 2006, p.69) (Grider, 1993, p.14) Grider, C. (1993). Foundations of Cognitive Theory: A Concise Review. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED372324&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED372324 Cognitivism started in the 1950's with the cognitive revolution as a response to behaviorism Application to Scenario: were able to integrate Gestalt Psychology and Information Processing in a client-education setting Wilhelm Wundt was the first to explore and research the cognitive structures involved in mental processing. Even though he was not a considered a cognitive theorist, he formulated a basis for cognitive research and development (AEU, p.106) Dube, A. (2011). What is Psychology. Gestalt Psychology. University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Perceptual field is divided into figure and ground Figure: What we are attending to Ground: What we are not attending to (Dube, 2011) Visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, or value will be seen as belonging together (Gestalt Prinicples,2013) We tend to continue shapes beyond their ending points (Gestalt Prinicples, 2013) Shapes or objects that are close to each other appear to form groups (Gestalt Principles, 2013) Tend to "fill in the gaps" when viewing images that are incomplete (Dube, 2011) Law of Symmetry or Order Symmetry: viewer can not tell there is something out of balance or symmetry Order: seen as stable, consistent and have structure (Gestalt Principles, 2013) The main goal of Gestalt Psychology is to promote insight and understanding Assess the clients perceptions and design a learning situation to peak their interests and understanding Design the learning situation based on past experiences, learning ability and developmental stage. Main goal of Information Processing view is to program the client with new information Divide learning steps that are compatible with client's intelligence, health and previous learning experiences New information is translated into a way that the client is able to process it (Miller, 2006. p.73-74) Timeline: Gestalt Prinicples (2013). Retrieved from http://prezi.com/ll68khhvj4c8/edit/#18_3289833 way we think about the environment" Focus is on the cognitive process that is "how we perceive, interpret, remember and the
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