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The Water Industry in Canada

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Benjamin Harry

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of The Water Industry in Canada

4.Major Drainage Basins Ranking by Area (km²) Location Area (km²) Mean Discharge
(m³/s) Pacific 1,009,064 24,100 Arctic 3.583,265 16,400 Hudson Bay 3,860,136 30,900 Atlantic 1,520,071 33,400 Gulf of Mexico 26,677 25 Location Area (km²) Mean Discharge
(m³/s) Atlantic 1,520,071 33,400 Hudson Bay 30,900 3,860,136 Pacific 1,009,064 24,100 Arctic 3,583,265 16,400 Gulf of Mexico 26,677 25 The first chart measures area of each drainage basin from greatest to least.
The second chart measures the mean discharge of each drainage basin from greatest to least at each location. 5.Month of highest Discharge rate of Mackenzie, Churchill, Columbia, Nelson, St Lawrence rivers Mackenzie river - June (43,000,000,000m³) Churchill River - June (11,000,000,000m³) Columbia River - July (16,000,000,000) Nelson River - July (8,000,000,000m³) St. Lawrence River - July (18,000,000,000m³) The amount of water (m³) is known as the discharge rate
The discharge rate is different for each river because
it depends on weather conditions and seasons.
Mackenzie river has the largest discharge over a period of 3 month June, July, August. 7.Wetlands What are wetlands? Wetlands are areas where water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for many periods of time during the year, including during the growing season. Wetlands are useful because they act as storage area for flood water. They are also a good sources for ground water. What is the value of wetlands to Canada ecologically and economically? The value of wetlands to Canada ecologically is they provide food and shelter to animals. Wetlands are also good for scientific studies, hunting waterfowl, and trapping. How does agriculture impact wetlands? Agriculture helps the wetlands of Canada by filter most pollutants out of the water. Where are wetlands at great risk Wetlands are at risk at the southern Prairies, southern Ontario and Quebec. Alone in southern Ontario 70% of wetlands have been replaced with agriculture or housing. The more wetlands disappear the more groundwater level falls and more animals lose there habitats. 8.Groundwater What is Groundwater? Groundwater is water that sinks into the ground and will sink no further because the ground is at its saturated zone. Saturated zone is when rock, spaces between soil, sand, gravel are filled or saturated with water. The top water that is held on top of the surface is called the water table. The Water Industrys
Of Canada The Water Industry
in Canada 6.In what direction does Canada's water flow Most of Canada's water flows north and east due to the St. Lawrence river which drains in the Atlantic Ocean. East of B.C. and west of the great lakes most rivers in that area flow north and west draining into the Arctic Ocean. Three main types of water pollution
Physical pollution, biological contamination, and chemical contamination.

Physical pollution - the most visible, yet the least harmful type of water pollution. Floating garbage, old tires, paper, and bottles. This type of pollution is easily spot able and cleanable, and prevention is relatively simple.
Biological contamination - unseen, yet a dangerous threat. Biological contamination range from harmless bacteria to deadly viruses that enter lakes and rivers. Eventually this pollution enters into water supply systems. Not all of the bacteria and viruses are killed in the water purification process, but most can be contained.
Chemical contamination - colourless, odorless, and tasteless, these three insensible characteristics of chemical contamination makes it the most dangerous. The two most used chemicals are pesticide and herbicides (pest and weed killers). 9. Describe 3 ways in which water can become contaminated. Which form is the most dangerous? Question 1: How much water do we use each day? To find out record the amount of water you use in a day. For some activities (i.e. shower, toilet) you will have to estimate. 1.A person like me drinks about 2 liters of water a day. To figure out how much water you drink a day, you should calculate with a 12 oz glass, which looks like the picture below. Just multiply the number of times you drink water from this glass each day, and I found out that I drink 72oz a day, so now all you have to do to find out the value in liters. 12 ounce=0.35L The discharge rate of the St. Lawrence rive is 16,800 m³/s (590,000 cu ft/s) Now it’s time to figure how much water your showers and toilets use. A modern shower head outputs 2.5 gallons/min, which is 9.5 liters/min. So to calculate how much water your shower takes, you times 9.5 by the minutes of continues water that runs through your shower head. So a shower with 15 minutes of continues water running takes 142.5 liters. If your showers use 15 minutes of continues water but you take two showers in one day, your average water usage adds up to 285L/Day Now to find out how much water your toilet uses per flush. 10. How does farming contribute to water pollution? The demand for water will increase as the population increases. It is estimated that if Canada uses 130 billion liters now it will use 180 billion liters in 2011. So we need to maintain the water we have by not polluting lakes and rivers so that we can use these sources later in the future, protect wetlands, conserve water in a sustainable manner Pesticides are chemicals used to get rid of insects in crops.
When too much pesticide is applied and rain begins, the chemicals get carried off to the nearest lake, river or pond. From the lakes and rivers the water is taken to be consumed by us, and eventually some will get ill and even die. 11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using ground water as a source of fresh water? A modern toilet uses 1.6 gallons per flush which is 6 litres per flush, but if you have a dual flush toilet, the half button uses 0.8 gallons per flush, which is 3 litres per flush. But a toilet without a dual flush system still uses 6 liters per flush. So if you flush the toilet 4 times a day it uses 18L/Day (Regular toilet) Advantages Disadvantages Describe what happened in Walkerton Ontario.
What is the situation in Walkerton now? Groundwater need to be protected. We cannot remove more existing groundwater than we can replace. This can result in the water table decreasing, which also happens when using using to much water in urban areas, draining swamps, and clearing land. This is called Withdrawal use, Withdrawal use is when "water that is permanently removed from a river for consumption in homes, industries, agriculture, or business. The opposite is Instream use, Instream use is "use of water without removing it from its source for activities, e.g., fishing and hydro - electric power. Now it’s time to figure out how much water gets used by this person. To find out the average water usage of this person per day, all you have to do is 2.1L/Day + 285L/Day + 18L/Day = 305.1L/Day This means this person uses around 305.1L/Day Question 3: Why is Canada called a water rich nation? How would you classify Canada’s per capita water consumption with other countries in the world? How would you account for this? How has population growth impacted our water resource? 3) Canada is called a water rich nation because Canadian rivers discharge about 7% of the world’s renewable water supply. Canada’s fresh water can also be found in rivers, lakes, groundwater, ice and snow. An average Canadian uses around 330 liters per day, where an average person living in India uses 135 liters per day. This is a huge difference, an average Canadian uses 60 liters more then double the amount of water used by an average person living in India. Population growth impacts the whole world’s water resource. With the population at 6,973,738,433 and climbing fast, we’re running out of our clean fresh water. The reason why an average Canadian uses a lot more water then an average person living in India, is because Canada has a low population and lots of clean Fresh water, where India’s population is 1,241,491,960 so the people over there have to use a minimum amount of water, so they can survive. Walkerton is where the worst case of water contamination happened in recent history of Ontario.

Walkerton is a relatively small community. The water supply became contaminated with the highly dangerous O157:H7 strain of E. coli bacteria, from farm runoff into an adjacent well that was known for years to be vulnerable to contamination. Neither the manager nor the foreman had any formal training in their position. Starting May 11, 2000, many residents of the town of about 100,000 began to simultaneously experience bloody diarrhea, gastrointestinal infections and other symptoms of E. coli infection. . An experimental drug in Phase III clinical trials, Synsorb Pk, was used to treat the outbreak.
After wards, The Ontario Clean Water Agency was put in charge of the cleanup of Walkerton`s water system and new rules and regulations were put in place in order to prevent such events from happening again. It saves money in purification as the water is mostly pure, free of chemicals and bacteria. Water for irrigation, 90 percent of fresh groundwater is available throughout the year and is a renewable resource Extraction the groundwater is expensive If polluted, the process of treating the water is difficult 13. Explain the hydro logic cycle. What are the factors that can affect the balance of the cycle Here is a quick and yet simple animation of the hydro logic cycle
http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/guides/mtr/hyd/gifs/smry1.gif The Hydro logic cycle is also commonly known as the water cycle.
The hydro logic cycle begins with the evaporation of water from the surface of the ocean. As moist air is lifted, it cools and water vapor condenses to form clouds. Moisture is transported around the globe until it returns to the surface as precipitation. Once the water reaches the ground, one of two processes may occur; 1) some of the water may evaporate back into the atmosphere or 2) the water may enter the surface and become groundwater. Groundwater either seeps its way to into the oceans, rivers, and streams, or is released back into the atmosphere through transpiration. The balance of water that remains on the earth's surface is runoff, which empties into lakes, rivers and streams and is carried back to the oceans, where the cycle begins again. Part A Part B A) B) C) The Great Lakes, a true wonder to all of Canada, but what is it really? You may refer the Great lakes as "The Great Chemical Soup". First of all, The Great Lakes, Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and your truly Lake Ontario are all surrounded by industrial areas centered. These industry's use the Great lakes and any water way that connects to them to dump their toxic chemicals, factories dump chemicals like PCBs, Dioxin, Mercury, and other toxins. However these are not the only chemicals found in the the lakes, pesticides from farms and other heavy metals from factories make their way down to our Great Lakes and soon into our glass of water. The Great Chemical Soup Thanks
Watching By: Benjamin Harry,
Gurpreet Sandhu,
and Tharindu Munasinghe. kk Explain 3 reasons why the demand for clean, fresh water will probably increase in the future. This may be due to effects caused by nature, humans or both. Q 2. Construct a visual aid that shows your daily water consumption over the 3 recorder days. Outline ways you can reduce the amount of water you use. 1) The first reason the demand for water will increase in the future is the population will increase. If the population increases then agriculture will have to increase and agriculture requires a lot of water. 2) Increased industrial development can affect the demand for water because it pollutes water. Polluting water and taking water can dramatically can the demand for water because a growing population and decreasing amount of water is a bad balance. Shorter and faster showers: You can take shorter and faster showers which will save a lot of water and still provide you with a clean dependable shower. Buying a dual flush system toilet can save a lot of water. Turning the water in your shower when you're applying soap, can save a lot of water two. Turning the water off when you're brushing your teeth can save water. And lots more. 3) Damage of rivers by industrial/farm runoff, farm runoff can contain chemicals such as petroleum, pesticides, and fertilizers. This had been going on for millions of years, until humans started to change it for their use.
- Blocking and rerouting of rivers and or streams for irrigation,
- Deforestation leading to soil erosion that also adds sediments to
reservoirs leading to floods
- Even over exaction of groundwater
- Loss of ice caps due to global warming,

All of those can affect the hydrologic cycle heavily. The public puts pressure on the government to stop polluting the environment. The government in turn puts pressure on the industry by developing laws to stop pollution, but pollution controls are enormously expensive. Installation of pollution controls would drive many companies out of business and eliminate many jobs. How can this vicious cycle be broken? This cycle can only be broken when the government realizes that money doesn't matter when it comes to life on earth. The government just doesn't understand that pollution is a big health issue and can be resolved. The only way to remove pollution is by money, and even though we have mint's and the government can print more money, to pay for those installations and keep the lives of billions safe, the government still thinks that money is more important.
If the government thinks that money is more important, how would money matter when there's no humans left on Earth. Just like desalination plants, the governments say that desalination plants are too expensive, but what matters more Life on Earth or money that no one is going to be able to use when life doesn't exist on Earth anymore. gurpreet i am changing the colour of the txt not that see able from afar
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